Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka
Biblioth.Bot. 138:55 (1988)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Friday 3 December 1993

Tufted annual or perennial, grass-like or herb, 0.3-1.2 m high. Fl. red/purple, Jul to Dec or Jan to Apr. Sand, loam, granite. Roadsides.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, Northern Province, South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Northern Kimberley, Ord Victoria Plain, Pilbara, Swan Coastal Plain.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Geraldton Hills, Hamersley, Mitchell, Northern Jarrah Forest, Ord, Ord-Victoria Plains P1, Perth.

IMCRA Regions: Kimberley.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Armadale, Ashburton, Carnamah, Cocos Islands, Cunderdin, Derby-West Kimberley, Gosnells, Greater Geraldton, Kalamunda, Mingenew, Nedlands, Northam, Northampton, Perth, Serpentine-Jarrahdale, South Perth, Swan, Tammin, Waroona, Wyndham-East Kimberley.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 24 July 2014

Alternative Names. Blanketgrass, Holme's grass, Natal grass, Natal redtop, red Natal grass, ruby grass.

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Perennial, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Wind, wildlife. Photosynthetic Pathway. C4. Fire response. Resprouts. Flowers and sets prolific seed.

Notes. In its native range it occurs in disturbed open habitats, often forming large stands. Widely distibuted outside its native range. Generally is a short-lived perennial but may be an annual. Displaces native vegetation and prevents the natural succession of native species. Germinates and grows under a wide range of temperature conditions with rates controlled by temperature when adequate moisture is available. Responds positively to addition of nutrients. Can be affected by mycorrhizal fungi which may play a role in facilitating or repelling invasion.

Additional information. Origin. South Africa, parts of the Mediterranean, India, North Africa. History of use/introduction. Erosion control, ornamental, forage.

Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set. Cut out small populations. Spray 13 ml/L (6.5 L/ha) Fusilade® Forte + wetting agent or for generic fluazifop-p (212g/L active ingredient) 8ml/L or 4L/ha + wetting agent. In less sensitive areas spot spray glyphosate at 1-2% solution + surfactant prior to flowering and seed set. Following fire is an optimum time to undertake control of populations. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar TypeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecComments
Dormant     YYYY    
Active GrowthYYYYO    OYY 
FloweringYYY        O 
Fruiting OYY         
Manual RemovalYYYY      YY 
Herbicide TreatmentO         YY 

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Anderson, R.C. & Menges, E.S. (2007) Response of Natal grass (Melinis repens), an invasive species in Florida scrub vegetation, to supplemental additions of nitrogen and phosphorus. In COS 129 - Invasion: Population processes and invasiveness, The ESA/SER Joint Meeting (August 5 - August 10, 2007), San Jose, California. URL: http://esameetings.allenpress.com/2007/P6105.HTM - Accessed January 2010.
  • Anderson, R.C. & Menges, E.S. (2008) Response of Natal grass (Melinis repens), an invasive species in Florida, to varied temperature conditions. In COS 101 -The 93rd ESA Annual Meeting August 3 - August 8, 2008, The Mid-west Airlines Centre, Milwaukie, Wisconsin. URL: http://eco.confex.com/eco/2008/techprogram/P12040.HTM - Accessed January 2010.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. & Robinson, K.E. (1992) Environmental weed invasions in Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2008) GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora Descriptions - Melinis repens. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. URL: http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/www/imp06222.htm - Accessed January 2010.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Hyde, M.A. & Wursten, B. (2007) Flora of Zimbabwe - species information - Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka subsp. repens. URL: http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=107420 - Accessed January 2010.
  • MacDonald, G., Ferrell, J., Sellers, B., Langeland, K. Duperron-Bond, T. & Ketterer-Guest, E. (2008) Natal grass - Rhynchelytrum repens (syn. Melinis repens). Centre for aquatic and invasive plants, University of Florida URL: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/651 - Accessed January 2010.
  • Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (2008) Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems. URL: http://www.hear.org/pier/scinames.htm - Accessed January 2010.
  • Pratt, C. & Lottermoser, B.G. (2007) Trace metal uptake by the grass Melinis repens from roadside soil and sediments, tropical Asia. Environmental Geology, 52: 1651-1662.
  • Stampe, E.D. & Daehler, C.C. (2003) Mycorrhizal species identity affects plant community structure and invasion: a microcosm study. Oikos, 100 (2): 362-372.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl - Accessed October 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements