Habit and leaf form. Shrubs. Plants succulent (leaves succulent); unarmed. Leaves cauline (ass.). Plants with neither basal nor terminal concentrations of leaves. Stems not ‘jointed’. Stem internodes solid (ass.). Leaves minute to large; alternate; spiral, or distichous; fleshy; petiolate to sessile; simple; epulvinate. Leaf blades entire; solid; semi-terete (usually); linear, or obovate; attenuate at the base, or cuneate at the base. Leaves without stipules. Leaf blade margins entire. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy. Hydathodes present, or absent. Hairs absent (some axillary pubescence). Extra-floral nectaries absent (ass.).
Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers hermaphrodite. Unisexual flowers absent. Plants hermaphrodite.
Inflorescence and flower features. Flowers solitary; axillary; sessile; ebracteate; ebracteolate (ass.); minute, or small; regular; cyclic. Hypogynous disk present, or absent. Perianth sepaline; 3–5; 1 -whorled; joined (imbricate); fleshy, or non-fleshy; persistent; accrescent, or non-accrescent. Calyx present; not replaced by accrescent bracteoles; 3–5; gamosepalous (ass.); blunt-lobed; imbricate; tubular (and sometimes unguiculate); fleshy, or non-fleshy; persistent (in the fruit); accrescent. The fruiting calyx not berrylike; wingless, spineless and without tubercles. Corolla absent. Androecial members definite in number. Androecium 3–5. Androecial members free of the perianth, or adnate (to the base of the perianth); all equal (ass.); free of one another (ass.); 1 -whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 3–5; all more or less similar in shape (ass.); isomerous with the perianth; alternisepalous. Anthers bent inwards in bud; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; tetrasporangiate. Gynoecium (2–)5 carpelled. The pistil 1 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synovarious to synstylovarious; superior. Ovary unilocular; 1 locular; sessile. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 2–3; partially joined. Placentation basal. Ovules in the single cavity 1; pendulous, or ascending; non-arillate; campylotropous.
Fruit and seed features. Fruit non-fleshy (pericarp thin, membranous, brittle above; fruiting perianth may be succulent); indehiscent; capsular-indehiscent, or a nut; enclosed in the fleshy perianth, or without fleshy investment; 1 celled. Gynoecia of adjoining flowers combining to form a multiple fruit, or not forming a multiple fruit. Fruit 1 seeded. Seeds more or less non-endospermic. Perisperm present, or absent. Cotyledons 2. Embryo curved.
Etymology. After Caleb Threlkeld (1676–1728), English botanist, published an account of the Irish flora.
Wheeler, Judy; Marchant, Neville; Lewington, Margaret; Graham, Lorraine (2002). Flora of the south west, Bunbury, Augusta, Denmark. Volume 2, dicotyledons. Australian Biological Resources Study. Canberra.
Blackall, William E.; Grieve, Brian J. (1988). How to know Western Australian wildflowers : a key to the flora of the extratropical regions of Western Australia. Part I : Dicotyledons (Casuarinaceae to Chenopodiaceae). University of W.A. Press. Perth.
Marchant, N. G.; Wheeler, J. R.; Rye, B. L.; Bennett, E. M.; Lander, N. S.; Macfarlane, T. D.; Western Australian Herbarium (1987). Flora of the Perth region. Part one. Western Australian Herbarium. Perth.
Australia. Bureau of Flora and Fauna (1984). Flora of Australia. Volume 4, Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae. Australian Govt. Pub. Service. Canberra.
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