Erect shrub or tree, 0.7-6 m high. Fl. white-cream-yellow, Apr to Oct. White sand, grey sandy clay, lateritic loam. Alongside creeks and roads, disturbed areas.
Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.
IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Fitzgerald, Geraldton Hills, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren, Western Mallee.
IMCRA Regions: Central West Coast, Leeuwin-Naturaliste, WA South Coast.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Armadale, Augusta-Margaret River, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Broomehill-Tambellup, Canning, Chapman Valley, Cockburn, Collie, Dandaragan, Dardanup, Harvey, Joondalup, Kalamunda, Katanning, Kojonup, Kulin, Manjimup, Melville, Merredin, Mundaring, Murray, Narrogin, Northam, Plantagenet, Subiaco, Swan, Wagin.
General Biology. Growth form. Shrub/Small tree. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Explosive, ants, birds, slashing, garden refuse, plantings, machinery, soil movement. Time to first flowering. 3 years. Toxicity. Seeds are poisonous to humans. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Resprouts. Seedbank persistence. Long, 10+ years. Fire response. Soil stored seed germinates prolifically following fire and mature plants occasionally resprout.
Notes. A serious invader of disturbed bushland on lateritic soils in higher rainfall areas. Has naturalised in almost all areas where it has been planted. Germinates readily after soil disturbance, forming dense infestations that can smother native vegetation and prevent regeneration. Increases soil nitrogen, encouraging other weeds to colonise sites.
Additional information. Origin. Canary Islands. History of use/introduction. Fodder shrub, garden escape.
Suggested method of management and control. Hand pull seedlings where possible. For mature plants apply 250 ml Access® in 15 L of diesel to basal 50 cm of trunk (basal bark). Foliar spray with 0.5 g/10 L metsulfuron methyl + Pulse® Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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