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Solenostemon Thonn.
Beskr.Guin.Pl. 271 (1827)

Name Status: Not Current

Scientific Description
T.R. Lally, Thursday 8 September 2016

Family Lamiaceae.

Habit and leaf form. Herbs, or shrubs (straggling); evergreen; bearing essential oils. Plants sub- succulent, or non-succulent; unarmed. Annual, or perennial. Leaves cauline. Plants with neither basal nor terminal concentrations of leaves. Young stems usually tetragonal. To 0.4–1 m high. Leptocaul (soft woody). Leaves small to medium-sized; not fasciculate; opposite; not decurrent on the stems; membranous; not imbricate; petiolate; aromatic; simple; epulvinate. Leaf blades entire; flat; sub- triangular to ovate (narrowly), or ovate; pinnately veined; cross-venulate; cuneate at the base (to almost truncate). Mature leaf blades adaxially minutely and sparsely hairy pilose, or pilose (very rarely densely; hairs often restricted to petiole); abaxially minutely and sparsely pilose. Leaves without stipules. Leaf blade margins crenate; flat. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy. Hairs present; glandular hairs present; complex hairs absent. Branched hairs present. Urticating hairs absent. Stem anatomy. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring.

Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers hermaphrodite. Unisexual flowers absent. Plants hermaphrodite. Entomophilous, or ornithophilous; usually via hymenoptera, or via lepidoptera, or via diptera.

Inflorescence and flower features. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’. Inflorescence many-flowered. Flowers in verticils. The terminal inflorescence unit cymose. Inflorescences terminal; unbranched or with 1–3 pairs of branches basally, with the upper, sessile inflorescence units (3–)many-flowered. Flowers pedicellate; bracteate; small; very irregular; zygomorphic; cyclic; tetracyclic. Floral receptacle developing a gynophore, or with neither androphore nor gynophore. Free hypanthium absent. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; 4–10; 2 -whorled; isomerous, or anisomerous. Calyx present; 5; 1 -whorled; gamosepalous; blunt-lobed; imbricate, or open in bud; exceeded by the corolla; obliquely campanulate; unequal but not bilabiate (the two anterior members elongated); non-fleshy; persistent; accrescent; with the median member posterior. Calyx lobes ovate to oblong, or triangular (the upper lobe broadly ovate and subacute, the laterals not developed, or short with truncate to obtuse apices, or triangular with apex obtuse, the anterior pair elongated). Corolla present; disguisedly 5; 1 -whorled; gamopetalous; blunt-lobed; imbricate; boat-shaped; bilabiate; plain, or with contrasting markings; blue, or violet. Corolla lobes obovate. Corolla members entire. Androecium present. Fertile stamens present. Androecial members definite in number. Androecium 4. Androecial members adnate; markedly unequal; free of one another (shortly connate basally, for 1–2 mm); 1 -whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 4. Staminal insertion in the throat of the corolla tube. Stamens becoming exserted; didynamous; all more or less similar in shape; reduced in number relative to the adjacent perianth; fertile stamens representing the posterior-lateral pair and the anterior-lateral pair; oppositisepalous; all alternating with the corolla members. Anthers connivent, or separate from one another; dorsifixed; versatile, or non-versatile; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; unilocular to bilocular; tetrasporangiate; unappendaged. Pollen shed as single grains. Fertile gynoecium present. Gynoecium 2 carpelled (the carpels deeply lobed to mimic G4). The pistil 4 celled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth. Gynoecium syncarpous; synstylovarious to eu-syncarpous; superior. Ovary plurilocular; 2 locular (originally), or 4 locular (by intrusions of the ovary wall constituting ‘ false septa’). Locules secondarily divided by ‘false septa’. Gynoecium median; stylate. Styles 1; simple; from a depression at the top of the ovary (the ovary deeply lobed); ‘gynobasic’. Stigmas 2; 2 - lobed. Placentation basal. Ovules 2 per locule, or 1 per locule (two per original loculus, but one per locellus); ascending; apotropous; non-arillate; anatropous, or hemianatropous.

Fruit and seed features. Fruit non-fleshy, or fleshy; a schizocarp. Mericarps (2–)4; comprising nutlets; dull. Seeds endospermic to non-endospermic; small. Embryo well differentiated. Cotyledons 2. Embryo straight.

Special features. The flowering nodes separated by extended internodes. 1–10 flowers subtended by each floral leaf. Calyx limb 5 lobed. Corolla tube exceeding the calyx; twice bent. The upper lip of the corolla incorporating 4 members, the lower 1; (posterior, adaxial) lip of the corolla 4 lobed (on the margin); upper (adaxial) lip of the corolla not concave. Lower (abaxial) lip of the corolla markedly concave. Stamens descending.

Geography, cytology, number of species. Native of Australia. Not endemic to Australia. Australian states and territories: Western Australia, Northern Territory, and Queensland. Northern Botanical Province. A genus of ca 60 species; 1 species in Western Australia; 0 endemic to Western Australia.