Tufted annual, grass-like or herb, 0.1-1 m high. Fl. green, Aug to Nov. Clay, loam, sand. Winter-wet flats, creeks, roadsides.
Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Hampton, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Swan Coastal Plain, Yalgoo.
IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Edel, Fitzgerald, Geraldton Hills, Hampton, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Recherche, Southern Jarrah Forest, Tallering, Western Mallee.
IMCRA Regions: Abrolhos Islands, Central West Coast, Leeuwin-Naturaliste.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Bayswater, Bruce Rock, Busselton, Canning, Carnamah, Collie, Dardanup, Dundas, Esperance, Gingin, Gnowangerup, Greater Geraldton, Harvey, Kalamunda, Merredin, Moora, Murchison, Murray, Narrogin, Nedlands, Northam, Northampton, Perth, Ravensthorpe, Rockingham, Shark Bay, Swan, Yalgoo.
General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Wind, water, mammal. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Toxicity. Moderate human allergen, vertebrate mammal poison. Seedbank persistence. 1 year, longer if buried.
Notes. Thrives under fertile and moist conditions. Similar morphologically to wheat until the flowering stage. Self-pollinated. Has staggered germination that can occur over 9 weeks. Seed tends to survive longer when buried up to a depth of 40cm. Seed tolerates anaerobic conditions by entering secondary dormancy. Has recorded multiple herbicide resistance to Group A/1 herbicides (including Targa®).
Additional information. Origin. Portugal, Spain, northern Africa, temperate western Asia, Pakistan, Italy, France. History of use/introduction. Forage, seed contaminant.
Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set. Spray 8 ml/L Fusilade® Forte + wetting agent or for generic fluazifop-p (212g/L active ingredient) 5ml/L+ wetting agent. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/