Twenty terminal taxa (including 18 species) are recognised in Eucalyptus ser. Falcatae. Brooker & Hopper. We include the monotypic E. ser. Cooperianae L.A.S.Johnson ex Brooker (E. cooperiana F.Muell.) in the series. The new species E. annettae D.Nicolle & M.E.French and E. opimiflora D. Nicolle & M.E.French and the new subspecies E. goniantha Turcz. subsp. kynoura D.Nicolle & M.E.French are described. New combinations made are E. adesmophloia (Brooker & Hopper) D.Nicolle & M.E.French, E. ecostata (Maiden) D.Nicolle & M.E.French and E. notactites (L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill) D. Nicolle & M.E.French. The circumscription of some taxa is significantly modified from previous accounts, including that of E. falcata Turc E. goniantha and E. obesa Brooker & Hopper. The name E. dorrienii Domin is resurrected to accommodate populations of mallees previously erroneously called E. falcata. We reject the status of the following previously accepted taxa: E. argyphea L.A. S.Johnson & K.D.Hill (= E. falcata), E. balanites Grayling & Brooker (= E. decipiens × E. lane-poolei), E. balanopelex L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill (= E. semiglobosa × E. kessellii subsp. eugnosta), E. communalis Brooker & Hopper (= E. adesmophloia – E. obesa intergrade), E. decipiens subsp. chalara Brooker & Hopper (= E. decipiens – E. adesmophloia intergrade) and E. phylacis L.A.S.Johnson& K.D.Hill (= E. decipiens × E. virginea). Distribution maps and representative images are provided where appropriate. A key to the taxa of E. ser. Falcatae is provided.