Rhizomatous (tuber-like), perennial, herb, to 1 m high. Fl. white, Jul to Nov. Loam, sand. Swamps, rarely uplands.
Alternative Names. Calla Lily, Pig Lily, Varkblom (South Africa), Lily of the Nile, Trumpet Lily, Funeral Flower.
General Biology. Growth form. Geophyte. Life form. perennial tuber/rhizome. Reproduction. Primarily by seed, occasionally offsets. Dispersal. Water, birds, foxes, stock, soil. Time to first flowering. 3-4 years. Seedbank persistence. Short term, days-1 year. Fire response. Generally survives fire.
Notes. Seed is slow to germinate and not affected by exposure to light. No reported allelopathy. All parts of the plant are toxic.
Additional information. Origin. South Africa. History of use/introduction. Garden escape. Similar exotic species. No known similar naturalised species. Superficially similar to the garden plants Arum italicum and Caladium bicolor (Elephant's Ear).
Suggested method of management and control. For the most effective control spot spray metsulfuron methyl 0.4 g/15 L of water (or 5g /ha) + 225 mL glyphosate + Pulse®. As glyphosate is non selective, only apply where there is no chance of off target application on native vegetation. Otherwise, spot spray metsulfuron methyl or chlorsulfuron 0.4 g/15 L of water ( or 5g /ha) + Pulse®. Herbicide application can send some tubers into dormancy therefore any control program needs to continue for at least five years. Apply any time between June and September. Early management prevents flowering and seed set but may miss later sprouting tubers. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
|Flowering||O||O||O||O||O||O||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Flowering often staggered|
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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