Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv. Barnyard Grass
Ess.Agrostogr. 53,161,169, Tab.11, Fig.2 (1812)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Gascoyne, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P2, Carnegie, Dandaragan Plateau, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren, Western Mallee.

IMCRA Regions: WA South Coast.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Armadale, Augusta-Margaret River, Cambridge, Canning, Cockburn, Dandaragan, Denmark, Donnybrook-Balingup, Gingin, Gosnells, Harvey, Kalamunda, Kulin, Manjimup, Northam, Perth, Stirling, Wiluna.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

Alternative Names. Hairy crabgrass, cockspur, barnyard millet.

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Water, birds especially water birds, other animals, wind. Photosynthetic Pathway. C4. Seedbank persistence. 1-13 years. Fire response. Can rapidly colonise burned areas from soil-stored seed.

Notes. Found in disturbed areas, frequently around water courses where it prefers, wet, fertile alluvial soils. Intolerant of dense shade. Has a fibrous root system. Self-pollinating. Able to grow rapidly and produce prolific seed. Seeds germinate in spring at 18-20°C. Under suitable conditions germination can carry through until autumn. Germination is stimulated by periodic draining and flooding of wetland sites. Root exudates of young plants have allelopathic effects. Herbicide resistance has been recorded.

Additional information. Origin. Europe, India. History of use/introduction. Pasture grass, seed contaminant, erosion control.

Suggested method of management and control. Easily removed by cutting the roots out with a knife or similar. Prevent seed set. Spray Verdict 520® 5 ml/10 L (250 ml/ha) + wetting agent at 3-5 leaf stage up to first tillering. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth       Y Y       Y Y Y Y  
Germination O O           Y Y Y O O  
Flowering Y Y                   Y  
Fruiting   Y Y                    
Optimum Treatment Y O O O O         Y Y Y  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Baskin, C.C. & Baskin, J.M. (1998) Ecology of seed dormancy and germination in grasses. In Population biology of grasses (ed. G.P. Cheplick) . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Chu, J.K.Y. (2005) Echinochloa crus-galli. International Environmental Weed Foundation (IEWF) URL: http://www.iewf.org/weedid/Echinochloa_crus-galli.htm - Accessed November 2009.
  • Esser, L.L. (1994) Echinochloa crus-galli. In U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (2002, April). Fire Effects Information System. URL: http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/faces/ReviewResults.xhtml - Accessed December 2007.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Kennedy, R.A., Rumpho, M.E. & Vanderzee, D. (1983) Germination of Echinochloa crus-galli (Barnyard Grass) seeds under anaerobic conditions. Plant Physiol., 72 (3): 787–794.
  • Luneva, N.N. (2003) Weeds - Echinochloa crusgalli (L). Beauv. - Barnyardgrass. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighbouring Countries. Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/weeds/Echinochloa_crusgalli/ - Accessed November 2009.
  • Macías, F.A., Chinchilla, N., Varela, R.M., Marín, D.M. & Molinillo, J.M.G. (2005) Structure-activity relationships of benzoxazinoids on Echinochloa crus galli (L.) P./Beauv. In Establishing the scientific base, Proceedings and selected papers of the fourth world congress on allelopathy. Editors: J.D.I. Harper, M. An, H. Wu and J.H. Kent, 21-26 August 2005. Charles Sturt University, NSW.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • Mueller, M.H. & van der Valk, A.G. (2002) The potential role of ducks in wetland seed dispersal. Wetlands, 22 (1): 170-178.
  • Sung, S.S., Leather, G.R. & Hale, M.G. (1987) Development and germination of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. Weed Science, 35: 211-215.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.
  • Yamamoto,T., Yokotani-Tomita, K., Kosemura, S., Yamamura, S., Yamada, K. & Hasegawa, K. (1999) Allelopathic substance exuded from a serious weed, germinating Barnyard Grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 18 (2): 65-67.

Project information and acknowledgements