Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) A.Gray
W.H.Brewer, A.Gray & S.Watson, Bot.California 1:350 (1876)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Thursday 19 June 1997

Erect, clumped annual, herb, to 1 m high. Fl. yellow, Feb to Jul or Dec. Sandy soils. Alluvial flats & roadsides.


Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, Northern Province, South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Coolgardie, Dampierland, Geraldton Sandplains, Murchison, Swan Coastal Plain.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P2, Eastern Goldfield, Eastern Murchison, Geraldton Hills, Lesueur Sandplain, Perth, Pindanland.

IMCRA Regions: Abrolhos Islands, Central West Coast, Leeuwin-Naturaliste.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Bayswater, Broome, Chittering, Coolgardie, Dandaragan, Gingin, Greater Geraldton, Irwin, Kalamunda, Leonora, Menzies, Moora, Northampton, Rockingham, Sandstone, Stirling, Wanneroo.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 26 August 2019

General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual or short lived perennial. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Machinary, soil movements, roadworks, animals. Seedbank persistence. 2-3 years.

Notes. Disturbed sandy substrates are particularly vulnerable to invasion. Characteristics that make it a serious environmental weed include ability to invade native vegetation and displace native flora, high seed production, seed dormancy, ability to tolerate dry conditions and allelopathic effects. Can grow to 1.5m and forms dense stands. It is of particular concern on off shore Islands where it can cause substantial degradation to seabird habitat by creating a physical barrier to nesting birds, lowering nest density and shading out native plants. Toxic to stock.

Additional information. Origin. southeastern North America, parts of Central and South America. History of use/introduction. Introduced in early 20th century. Similar exotic species. Sunflower, Helianthus annua, Ursinia anthemoides (mountain marigold).

Suggested method of management and control. Hand remove isolated plants, including tap root, before seed set. Carefully dispose of plants as they are known to resprout roots. In degraded areas try 1% glyphosate + Pulse® 2 mL/L or in more intact bushland, Lontrel® 20 ml/10 L + wetting agent. Apply herbicide before seed set. Follow up control will be required on germinating seedlings for at least three years. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth             Y Y Y Y Y    
Flowering Y Y               Y Y Y  
Fruiting   Y Y Y                  
Germination         Y Y Y            
Herbicide Treatment             Y Y Y Y Y    
Manual Removal Y Y       Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.



  • American Bird Conservancy (2013) Threats to Birds - Golden Crownbeard (Verbesina encelioides). URL: - Accessed 2014.
  • Feenstra, K.R. & Clements, D.R. (2008) Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 4.Verbesina encelioides, Golden Crownbeard (Magnoliopsida: Asteraceae)1. Pacific Science, 62 (2): 161-176.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Inderjit, C.A. & Dakshini, K.M.M. (2000) Allelopathic potential of Verbesina encelioides root leachate in soil. Canadian Journal of Botany, 77 (10): 1419-1420.
  • Kaul, M.L.H & Manga, P.D. (1987) Phenology and Germination of Crownbeard (Verbesina encelioides). Weed Science, 35 (4): 513-518.
  • Keeler, R.F, Baker, D.C & Panter, K.E. (1992) Concentration of galegine in Verbesina encelioides and Galega oficinalis and the toxic and pathologic effects induced by the plants. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology & Oncology, 11 (2): 11-7.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • Parsons, W.T. & Cuthbertson, E.G. (2001) Noxious weeds of Australia. 2nd Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
  • Randall, J.M. & Marinelli, J. (1996) Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York, USA.

Project information and acknowledgements