Tamarix aphylla (L.) H.Karst. Athel Tree
Deut.Fl. 641 (1882)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Tuesday 14 August 2007

Tree, to 12 m high. Fl. pink-white, Feb or May. Along river banks.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, Northern Province, South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Carnarvon, Central Kimberley, Geraldton Sandplains, Mallee, Pilbara, Swan Coastal Plain.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P2, Fortescue, Geraldton Hills, Hart, Perth, Western Mallee, Wooramel.

IMCRA Regions: Central West Coast.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Beverley, Carnarvon, Cockburn, East Pilbara, Greater Geraldton, Halls Creek, Kulin, Rockingham, Shark Bay, Toodyay, Wanneroo.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 8 September 2016

General Biology. Growth form. Shrub. Reproduction. Seed, stem and root fragments. Dispersal. Water, wind, machinery, garden refuse. Time to first flowering. 3 years. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Resprouts. Seedbank persistence. Short, days to less than one year. Fire response. Plants generally resprout following fire, however, the response can vary greatly depending on timing (temperature and moisture conditions), phenological stage of plants and fire severity.

Notes. The four-petal flowers of T. parviflora distinguish it from T. aphylla which have five-petal flowers. It is not listed as a WONS species, however it is naturalised in Western Australia and has the potential to become a serious environmental weed. Moderately drought tolerant, though less drought tolerant than other Tamarix species. Seed is highly viable when fresh. Long tap roots allow it to intercept deep water tables and interfere with natural aquatic systems. Leaves are not highly flammable due to high moisture content, even though they contain volatile oils.

Additional information. Origin. Southeastern Europe, including Turkey, Crete, Greece and the Balkan states. History of use/introduction. Garden escape. Similar exotic species. T. aphylla, T. ramosissima.

Suggested method of management and control. Inject 100% glyphosate into root crown. In pasture or degraded areas, manually removal all plant parts and follow up control any regrowth. In sensitive environments, cut stem to ground level, immediately paint with Access® 17ml/L in diesel (using glyphosate with cut stump is ineffective). Where there is limited risk of off-target damage or impacts on waterways try foliar spray with triclopyr 600g/L at 1.7 to 10ml/L in water. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Flowering                 O Y Y O  
Fruiting Y                     Y  
Optimum Treatment Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • CRC Weed Management (2008) Weed management guide - Athel Pine (Tamarix aphylla). The CRC for Australian Weed Management URL: http://www.weeds.crc.org.au/weed_management/indiv_species_a.html#athelpine - Accessed February 2008.
  • CRC Weed Management (2008) Weed management guide - Athel Pine (Tamarix aphylla). The CRC for Australian Weed Management URL: http://www.weeds.crc.org.au/weed_management/indiv_species_a.html#athelpine - Accessed February 2008.
  • DeLoach, C.J., Lewis, P.A., Herr, J.C., Carruthers, R.I., Tracy, J.L. & Johnson, J (2003) Host Specificity of the Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Asia, a Biological Control Agent for Saltcedars (Tamarix: Tamaricaceae) in the Western United States. Biological Control, 27 (2): 117-147 Elsevier Science, USA.
  • Gouldthorpe, J. (2008) Athel Pine. National Best Practice Management Manual. Northern Territory Government, Northern Territory.
  • Gouldthorpe, J. (2008) Athel Pine. National Best Practice Management Manual. Northern Territory Government, Northern Territory.
  • Griffin, G.F., Smith, D.M.S., Morton, S.R., Allen, G.E. & Masters, K.A. (1989) Status and Implications of the Invasion of Tamarisk (Tamarisk aphylla) on the Finke River, Northern Territory. Journal of Environmental Management, 29 (4): 297-315 Elsevier.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Meyers-Rice, B. (1997) Weed notes Tamarix spp. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, USA. URL: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs.html - Accessed December 2007.
  • Muzika, R. & Swearingen, J.M. (1997) Saltcedar, Tamarix aphylla, T. chinensis, T. gallica. Alien plant invaders of natural areas - trees. URL: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/trees.htm - Accessed December 2007.
  • Navie, S. & Adkins, S. (2008) Environmental Weeds of Australia, An interactive identification and information resource for over 1000 invasive plants. Centre for Biological Information Technology, The University of Queensland.
  • Parsons, W.T. & Cuthbertson, E.G. (2001) Noxious weeds of Australia. 2nd Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
  • Tesky, J.L. (1992) Tamarix aphylla. In U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Fire Effects Information System. URL: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ - Accessed December 2007.
  • Zouhar, K. (2003) Tamarix spp. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory URL: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/tamspp/all.html - Accessed October 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements