Oenothera laciniata Hill
Hort.Kew. 172 (1768)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 15 August 2007

Low sprawling perennial, herb, to 0.5 m high, to 0.5 m wide. Fl. yellow, May to Nov. Roadverges.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Carnarvon, Swan Coastal Plain.

IBRA Subregions: Cape Range, Dandaragan Plateau, Perth.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Ashburton, Canning, Chittering, Cockburn, Dandaragan, Gosnells, Mandurah, Melville, Murray, Nedlands, Perth, South Perth, Stirling.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

Alternative Names. Ragged Evening Primrose.

General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Perennial. Reproduction. Seed. Seedbank persistence. Long term.

Notes. Prefers full sunlight, dry conditions and sandy soil where the ground vegetation is low and sparse. Most growth and development occurs during cooler spring conditions. Generally flowers at night. Germinates over a range of temperatures, and decreases with increasing pH (acidity), with greatest germination occurring at pH 4. Emergence is highest when seed is buried at depths of 0.5 cm. Germination decreases with increasing burial depth, and generally no seed emerges from a depth of 10 cm.

Additional information. Origin. North America. Similar exotic species. Oenothera stricta, O. glazioviana, O. drummondii, O. mollissima.

Suggested method of management and control. Control in seedling stage, as older plants are relatively resistant to herbicides, including glyphosate. Hand remove small populations, ensuring removal of entire root stystem. Spot spray chlorsulfuron 0.4 g/10 L + spray oil. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth         U U U U U U U    
Germination         U U U            
Flowering Y Y Y Y O O O O O O O Y Can flower throughout the year
Fruiting   U U U U                
Manual Removal O O O O O O O O O O O O  
Herbicide Treatment           Y Y Y O O O    

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Bromilow, C. (1995) Problem plants in South Africa. Briza Publications, Arcadia, South Africa.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Burnside, O.G., Wilson, R.G., Sanford Weisberg, S. & Hubbard, K.G. (1996) Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in Eastern and Western Nebraska. Weed Science, 44: 74-86.
  • Clewis, S.B., Jordan, D.L., Spears, J.F. & Wilcut, J.W. (2007) Influence of environmental factors on cutleaf eveningprimrose (Oenothera laciniata) germination, emergence, development, vegetative growth, and control. Weed Science, 55 (3): 264-272.
  • Funatsu, Y., Nakatsubo, T., Yamaguchi, O. & Horikoshi, T. (2005) Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the establishment of the alien plant Oenothera laciniata (Onagraceae) on a Japanese coastal sand dune. Journal of Coastal Research, 21 (5): 1054-1061.
  • Hilty, J. (2010) Ragged Evening Primrose, Oenothera laciniata, Evening Primrose family (Onagraceae). URL: http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/prairie/plantx/rag_primrose.htm - Accessed March 2010.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • KangWu, N., QingLing, W., RenYong, H., SuZhen, C. & BingYang, D. (2009) Seasonal dynamics of species composition of community and soil seed bank invaded by Oenothera laciniata Hill in Wenzhou, Zhejiang. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 17 (6): 535-542.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
  • Swarbrick, J.T. & Skarratt, D.B. (1994) The bushweed 2 database of environmental weeds in Australia. The University of Queensland, Gatton College.

Project information and acknowledgements