Hedera helix L.
Sp.Pl. 202 (1753)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Helen Coleman, Monday 19 October 1998

Climber, to 10 m high. Loam over granite. Woodland along creeks, near farmland.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Jarrah Forest, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Northern Jarrah Forest, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Augusta Margaret River, Murray.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 26 August 2019

General Biology. Growth form. Vine. Reproduction. Reproduces by seed and also vegetatively by various methods. Dispersal. Stems that comes into contact with soil develop roots and can form into new plants. Stem segments that have been seperated from the rest of the plant can also take root. Rhizomes may also be produced. Seeds are dispersed by birds and other animals.. Fire response. After fire through vegetative regeneration it can sprout when cut and root from stem fragments. Low tolerance of fire when it does burn but due to its relatively high water content, it is slow to burn and will not readily spread fire well..

Notes. A climber or creeper that can become shrubby with age. Stems are woody and produce short aerial roots that attach to supporting structures. Its leaves (3-15 cm long and 3-10 cm wide) are either shallowly 3-5 lobed or entire. These leaves have dark green and glossy upper surfaces. It also can appear in variegated form. Rounded fruit (5-10 mm across) resembles a berry and turns from green to dull bluish-purple or black as it matures Five tiny yellowish-green flowers are arranged in clusters, with all flower stalks originating from the same point. Each flower has five yellowish-green petals (3-5 mm long), but no obvious sepals. They also have five stamens and five partially fused styles (about 1.5 mm long). Flowering occurs mainly during summer. Can be confused with similar weedy vines when not in flower, distinguished by short arial roots from its stem..

Additional information. Origin. Native to northern Africa, the Azores, the Madeira Islands, the Canary Islands, Europe and western Asia.. History of use/introduction. Ornamental.

Suggested method of management and control. Cut stump then herbicide foliar spray. Mulching and herbicide treatment are control methods but may need repeating. Vines growing as groundcover can be pulled up by hand, with some difficulty. Remove all stem parts from the ground as they will take root and regrow. If removal from site is difficult ensure vines are placed off the ground (on branches or a platform) to dry out and decompose. Mulching may be an effective choice for smaller infestations when herbicides are not appropriate. Cover the entire infestation with several inches of mulch. The mulch should stay in place for at least two growing seasons and may need to be augmented several times. Mulching can also be done following herbicide treatment. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Flowering Y                   Y Y  
Manual Removal Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Australian Government (2019) Weeds in Australia . Commonwealth, Australia. URL: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/weeddetails.pl?taxon_id=3714# - Accessed March 2019.
  • Brisbane City Council (2019) Weed Identification Tool. Brisbane City Council, Brisbane, Queensland. URL: https://weeds.brisbane.qld.gov.au/weeds/ivy - Accessed March 2019.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Metcalfe,D.J. (2010) Hedera helix L.. Journal of Ecology, 93 (3): 632-648.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • Muyt, A. (2001) Bush invaders of South-East Australia: A guide to the identification and control of environmental weeds found in South-East Australia. R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Melbourne.
  • Navie, S. & Adkins, S. (2008) Environmental Weeds of Australia, An interactive identification and information resource for over 1000 invasive plants. Centre for Biological Information Technology, The University of Queensland.
  • Paczkowska, G. & Chapman, A.R. (2000) The Western Australian flora: A descriptive catalogue. Western Australian Wildflower Society (Inc.), Western Australian Herbarium and Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority, Perth.
  • Queensland Government (2016) Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Identric Pty Ltd, Queensland. URL: https://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/hedera_helix.htm - Accessed March 2019.
  • Waggy, M.A. (2010) Hedera helix. In: Fire Effects Information System . U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Rocky Mountain Research Station USA., USA. URL: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/vine/hedhel/all.html - Accessed March 2019.
  • Wells, M.J., Balsinhas, A.A., Joffe, H., Engelbrecht, V.M., Harding, G. & Stirton, C.H. (1986) A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 53.
  • Williams, P.A. & Hayes, L (2007) Emerging weed issues for the West Coast Regional Council and their prospects for biocontrol. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0607/109 Prepared for West Coast Regional Council. Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd http://www.envirolink.govt.nz/reports/documents/80-WCRC10.pdf.

Project information and acknowledgements