Annual, grass-like or herb, 0.15-0.6 m high. Fl. green, Sep to Dec or Jan. Sand.
Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Swan Coastal Plain.
IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P2, Perth.
IMCRA Regions: Leeuwin-Naturaliste.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Belmont, Busselton, Northam.
Alternative Names. Blackgrass.
General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Mammals, agricultural harvesting equipment, soil movement. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Seedbank persistence. Medium, 4 to 9 years. Fire response. Seed on the soil surface is killed by fire, while seed covered by shallow soil is protected and stimulated to germinate.
Notes. One of the most important grass weeds in winter cereal production in Europe and is common on cultivated ground, although uncommon in bushland. Can produce prolific seed. Prefers moist soils. Responds positively to higher nitrogen levels by increased tillers and greater seed production. Germination can vary seasonally and is stimulated by light. Herbicide resistance has been recorded.
Additional information. Origin. Mediterranean, temperate Asia. History of use/introduction. Unknown. Similar exotic species. Alopecurus pratensis.
Suggested method of management and control. A combination of cultural and herbicide control is recommended. Hand remove small infestations of mature plants, ensuring all plant parts are removed. Try careful application of 1% glyphosate on seedlings. Early application of glyphosate while actively growing or at the start of flowering will reduce seed set. Late spraying toward the end of flowering and/or mowing does not prevent seed set. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/