Habit and leaf form. Herbs, or shrubs (rarely); with coloured juice (the juice yellow, or orange). Plants spiny, or unarmed. Annual to perennial; plants with a basal concentration of leaves. Mesophytic. Leaves alternate; spiral; petiolate (in the basal rosette), or sessile (above); non-sheathing; simple. Leaf blades dissected; pinnatifid, or much-divided (bipinnatisect, with lobes and teeth spine-tipped); pinnately veined; cross-venulate. Leaves without stipules; without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy. Hydathodes present, or absent. Stem anatomy. Nodes unilacunar, or tri-lacunar. Secondary thickening absent, or developing from a conventional cambial ring.
Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers hermaphrodite. Unisexual flowers absent. Plants hermaphrodite. Entomophilous.
Inflorescence and flower features. Flowers solitary; medium-sized; operculate (calyptrate), or not operculate; odourless; (2–)3 merous; tetracyclic to pentacyclic to polycyclic. Floral receptacle developing an androphore, or developing a gynophore, or with neither androphore nor gynophore. Free hypanthium absent. Hypogynous disk absent. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; 6–7, or 9; 3 -whorled; isomerous, or anisomerous. Calyx (2–)3; 1 -whorled; polysepalous; imbricate; unequal but not bilabiate, or regular (? rather asymmetrical); with mucron or horn-like appendages, bristly; not persistent (caducous). Corolla 4, or 6; 2 -whorled (2+2 or 3+3); polypetalous; imbricate and crumpled in bud; regular; white, or cream, or yellow, or orange, or purple; not spurred. Androecium 50–100 (i.e. ‘many’). Androecial sequence determinable, or not determinable. Androecial members maturing centripetally; free of the perianth; free of one another; 3–15 -whorled (? generally indefinite in 2- or 3-merous, regularly alternating whorls). Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 50–100 (i.e. ‘many’); polystemonous. Anthers basifixed; non-versatile; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; tetrasporangiate. Gynoecium 3–7 carpelled. The pistil 1 celled. Carpels isomerous with the perianth, or increased in number relative to the perianth. Gynoecium syncarpous; synstylovarious to eu-syncarpous (depending on interpretation of confluent stigmas); superior. Ovary unilocular; 1 locular. Locules secondarily divided by ‘false septa’, or without ‘false septa’. Gynoecium stylate. Styles very short, with 3–7 free, spreading stigmatic branches; persistent. Stigmas 3–7 (the stigmas lying in a depression running along the centre of the branches); dorsal to the carpels, or commissural, or dorsal to the carpels and commissural; 1 - lobed; dry type; papillate; Group II type. Placentation parietal. Ovules in the single cavity 20–50 (i.e. ‘many’); horizontal, or ascending; with superior or lateral raphe; arillate, or non-arillate; anatropous, or campylotropous, or amphitropous.
Fruit and seed features. Fruit non-fleshy; spinose; dehiscent; a capsule (ellipsoid). Capsules valvular (dehiscing by basipetal valves to up to 1/3 of total length, rarely almost towards the base). Fruit many seeded. Seeds globose; copiously endospermic. Endosperm oily. Embryo rudimentary at the time of seed release, or weakly differentiated. Cotyledons 2. Seedling. Germination phanerocotylar, or cryptocotylar.
Physiology, biochemistry. Aluminium accumulation not found. Photosynthetic pathway: C3.
Geography, cytology, number of species. Adventive. Australian states and territories: Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales, and Victoria. South-West Botanical Province.
Economic uses, etc. Cultivated as ornamentals.
FloraBase is produced by the staff of the Western Australian Herbarium, Biodiversity and Conservation Science, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. Publication or other use of content on this site is unauthorised unless that use conforms with the copyright statement.
Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/