Habit and leaf form. Lianas. Climbing. Mesophytic to xerophytic, or helophytic. Leaves opposite (or sub-opposite); petiolate (petioles partly persisting after the fall of the leaf, their bases forming thorns); simple. Leaf blades entire; elliptic, or oblong; pinnately veined; cross-venulate; attenuate at the base. Leaves without stipules. Leaf blade margins entire. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy. Hydathodes present (occasionally), or absent. Hairs present, or absent.
Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers hermaphrodite. Unisexual flowers absent. Plants hermaphrodite. Plants viviparous, or not viviparous.
Inflorescence and flower features. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; elongated in spikes. The terminal inflorescence unit racemose. Inflorescences terminal, or axillary; usually racemose. Flowers bracteate; bracteolate. Bracteoles not adnate to the receptacle. Flowers small; regular, or somewhat irregular; 3–8 merous; cyclic; tetracyclic, or pentacyclic. Free hypanthium present; tubular; lower part adnate to the ovary. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; 4–5, or 9–10(–16); 1 -whorled, or 2 -whorled; isomerous. Calyx present; 5; 1 -whorled; gamosepalous; blunt-lobed; imbricate, or valvate (or very small); regular; not persistent. Calyx lobes triangular (sometimes with filiform tips). Corolla present; 5; 1 -whorled; polypetalous; when present, imbricate, or valvate; regular; white, or red. Petals oblong. Androecial members definite in number. Androecium 10. Androecial members free of the perianth; all equal; free of one another, or coherent; 2 -whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 10; attached inside the hypanthium and attached on the rim of the hypanthium; isomerous with the perianth, or diplostemonous, or polystemonous; oppositisepalous. Anthers dorsifixed; versatile; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; tetrasporangiate. Gynoecium 2–5 carpelled. The pistil 1 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synstylovarious, or eu-syncarpous; inferior. Ovary unilocular; 1 locular. Epigynous disk present. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1. Placentation apical. Ovules in the single cavity 2–4; pendulous; non-arillate; anatropous.
Fruit and seed features. Fruit non-fleshy; indehiscent, or a schizocarp; if non-schizocarpic, a drupe; 1 seeded. Seeds non-endospermic. Embryo well differentiated. Cotyledons 1, or 2, or 3.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/