Symonanthus Haegi
Telopea 2:175 (1981)

Name Status: Current
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Scientific Description
J. Gathe and Leslie Watson, Thursday 8 September 2016

Family Solanaceae.

Habit and leaf form. Shrubs; resinous, or not resinous. Plants unarmed. Stem internodes solid. Helophytic to xerophytic. Leaves alternate; spiral; ‘herbaceous’, or leathery; sessile; non-sheathing; gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; aromatic, or without marked odour; simple; epulvinate. Leaf blades entire; narrowly ovate to linear, or triangular to linear; pinnately veined; cross-venulate. Leaves without stipules. Leaf blade margins entire (or sinuate); revolute. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy. Hairs present, or absent; glandular hairs absent, or present. Extra-floral nectaries absent.

Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers hermaphrodite, or functionally male, or functionally female. Unisexual flowers present, or absent. Plants hermaphrodite, or dioecious. Female flowers with staminodes. Male flowers with pistillodes. Entomophilous.

Inflorescence and flower features. Flowers solitary, or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; terminal; in cymes. The terminal inflorescence unit apparently cymose. Inflorescences terminal (or lateral). Flowers pedicellate (may be hairy); bracteate (opposite pairs); ebracteolate (B); small to medium-sized; fragrant, or odourless; somewhat irregular. The floral asymmetry involving the androecium, or involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Flowers commonly 5 merous; cyclic; tetracyclic. Free hypanthium absent. Hypogynous disk present; intrastaminal. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; 10; 2 -whorled; isomerous. Calyx present; 5; 1 -whorled; gamosepalous; blunt-lobed. Calyx lobes about the same length as the tube. Calyx campanulate, or cupuliform, or cyathiform; regular; persistent; non-accrescent. Corolla present; 5; 1 -whorled; gamopetalous. Corolla lobes markedly shorter than the tube. Corolla contorted and plicate, or contorted; tubular (narrowly); regular; white and purple (with purple striations in the tube). Fertile stamens present, or absent. Androecial members definite in number. Androecium 3–5. Androecial members adnate; all equal; free of one another; 1 -whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens, or including staminodes. Staminodes when present, 1(–2). Stamens (3–)4–5. Staminal insertion near the base of the corolla tube. Stamens all inserted at the same level; remaining included; all more or less similar in shape; reduced in number relative to the adjacent perianth, or isomerous with the perianth; oppositisepalous (at the base of the corolla lobes). Filaments appendiculate, or not appendiculate. Anthers connivent to cohering; dorsifixed, or basifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; extrorse, or introrse; tetrasporangiate. Pollen shed in aggregates, or shed as single grains. Gynoecium 2 carpelled. The pistil 2 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synstylovarious to eu-syncarpous; superior. Ovary plurilocular; 2 locular. Gynoecium oblique; stylate. Styles 1; attenuate from the ovary; apical; not becoming exserted. Stigmas 1; very shortly 2 - lobed (A); capitate. Placentation axile. Ovules 4–10 per locule, or 20–50 per locule (numerous); non-arillate; anatropous, or hemianatropous.

Fruit and seed features. Fruit non-fleshy; not spinose; dehiscent; a capsule. Capsules septicidal, or loculicidal, or valvular. Fruit 2 celled (usually); 8–100 seeded (numerous, several). Seeds endospermic. Endosperm oily, or not oily. Cotyledons 2. Embryo straight, or straight to curved, or curved.

Special features. Corolla tube exceeding the calyx.

Additional comments. S. aromaticus assumed to be aromatic.

Etymology. After David Symon (1920-), Australian systematic botanist prominent in the taxonomy of Australian Solanaceae; and the Greek for "flower".

Taxonomic Literature

  • Australia. Bureau of Flora and Fauna (1982). Flora of Australia. Volume 29, Solanaceae. Australian Govt. Pub. Service. Canberra.