Common name. Mudmats. Family Scrophulariaceae.
Habit and leaf form. Herbs. Annual, or perennial. Leaves basal and cauline. Plants with a basal concentration of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal concentrations of leaves. Hydrophytic, or helophytic; when hydrophytic, rooted (sometimes forming mats). Leaves of aquatics emergent; minute to small; opposite (or clustered by suppression of internodes); ‘herbaceous’, or leathery, or membranous; petiolate; simple; epulvinate. Leaf blades entire; flat; linear, or obovate, or elliptic; pinnately veined. Mature leaf blades adaxially glabrous, or pubescent; abaxially glabrous, or pubescent. Leaves without stipules. Leaf blade margins entire. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy. Hydathodes present (occasionally), or absent. Hairs present, or absent; glandular hairs absent. Stem anatomy. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring.
Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers hermaphrodite. Unisexual flowers absent. Plants hermaphrodite. Entomophilous.
Inflorescence and flower features. Flowers solitary; axillary; pedicellate, or sessile; bracteate; ebracteolate; minute to small; very irregular; zygomorphic; 3–5 merous; tetracyclic. Free hypanthium absent. Hypogynous disk present. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla (though rarely corolla rudimentary); 6–9; 2 -whorled; anisomerous. Calyx present; 3, or 4; 1 -whorled; gamosepalous; lobed. Calyx lobes markedly shorter than the tube. Calyx erect; imbricate, or valvate; campanulate; unequal but not bilabiate; green, or red, or brown; persistent; accrescent. Corolla present; 3–5; 1 -whorled; gamopetalous; lobed; imbricate, or valvate; bilabiate; with contrasting markings; white, or pink, or purple, or blue; not spurred. Androecium 2, or 4. Androecial members adnate (to the corolla); all equal (when only 2), or markedly unequal (when 4 present); free of one another; 1 -whorled. Stamens 2, or 4; becoming exserted, or remaining included; didynamous; reduced in number relative to the adjacent perianth (usually); oppositisepalous. Anthers centrifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; unilocular (by confluence of 2 cells); tetrasporangiate. Gynoecium 2 carpelled. The pistil 2 celled. Gynoecium non-petaloid; syncarpous; eu-syncarpous; superior. Ovary plurilocular; 2 locular. Gynoecium median; stylate. Styles 1; attenuate from the ovary, or from a depression at the top of the ovary; apical. Stigmas 1; 1 - lobed (a prominent broad flap covering the mouth and anthers, receptive above, when touched quickly jerking back against the upper corolla lip), or 2 - lobed (vestigial second flap at base). Placentation axile, or apical. Ovules 50 per locule (to ‘many’); pendulous to ascending; non-arillate; anatropous, or campylotropous, or hemianatropous.
Fruit and seed features. Fruit non-fleshy; dehiscent; a capsule. Capsules loculicidal (with the septum remaining attached to the 2 valves). Fruit 50 seeded (to ‘many’). Seeds endospermic. Endosperm oily. Seeds minute. Cotyledons 2. Embryo straight to curved.
Special features. Corolla tube exceeding the calyx, or not exceeding the calyx; straight. The upper lip of the corolla incorporating 2 members, the lower 3; (posterior, adaxial) lip of the corolla bilobed (rarely reduced). Lower (abaxial) lip of the corolla 3 lobed (rarely reduced).
Geography, cytology, number of species. Native of Australia. Not endemic to Australia. Australian states and territories: Western Australia, South Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory, and Tasmania. Northern Botanical Province and South-West Botanical Province.
Etymology. From the Greek for "tongue" and "stigma".
FloraBase is produced by the staff of the Western Australian Herbarium, Biodiversity and Conservation Science, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. Publication or other use of content on this site is unauthorised unless that use conforms with the copyright statement.
Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/