Anthotium R.Br.
Prodr.Fl.Nov.Holland. 582 (1810)

Name Status: Current
Browse to the list of specimens for Anthotium R.Br.

Scientific Description
J. Gathe and Leslie Watson, Thursday 8 September 2016

Common name. Anthotium. Family Goodeniaceae.

Habit and leaf form. Herbs (tufted). Perennial. Leaves basal, or basal and cauline. Plants with a basal concentration of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal concentrations of leaves. Stem internodes solid (ass.). Mesophytic, or xerophytic. Leaves alternate (mostly, or ‘indeterminate’ rosetted); spiral; petiolate, or sessile; non-sheathing; simple; epulvinate. Leaf blades entire; flat, or solid; sometimes linear- terete, or semi-terete; linear to obovate (to spathulate); pinnately veined. Leaves without stipules. Leaf blade margins entire to serrate (serrulate). Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy. Hairs present (C), or absent (except the indusium); complex hairs present, or absent. Extra-floral nectaries absent (ass.). Stem anatomy. Secondary thickening absent, or developing from a conventional cambial ring.

Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers hermaphrodite. Unisexual flowers absent. Plants hermaphrodite. Entomophilous. Pollination mechanism conspicuously specialized (involving a stylar modification for pollen presentation).

Inflorescence and flower features. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in cymes, or in corymbs, or in panicles, or in fascicles (or clusters). The terminal inflorescence unit cymose, or racemose. Inflorescences scapiflorous; terminal; inflorescence cymose, compound, of 1–5 heads each of 1–5 monchasia each containing 1–3 flowers, or a pedunculate dense corymb or terminal cluster, solitary flowers arranged in pedunculate panicles, rarely almost solitary; flowering stems leafless or nearly so, simple or branched; with involucral bracts, or without involucral bracts; pseudanthial, or not pseudanthial. Flowers subsessile, or sessile; bracteate (opposite, leaf-like); bracteolate (leaf-like); small to medium-sized; very irregular. The floral asymmetry involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Flowers 5 merous; cyclic; tetracyclic. Free hypanthium absent; adnate to the ovary. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; (8–)10; 2 -whorled; isomerous, or anisomerous. Calyx present; 5; 1 -whorled; gamosepalous; blunt-lobed; tubular. Calyx lobes linear to ovate. Corolla present; 5; 1 -whorled; appendiculate (the upper lobes auriculate); gamopetalous; lobed. Corolla tube adaxially deeply split. Corolla valvate; bilabiate; glabrous abaxially; cream, or yellow, or red to purple, or blue (light). Corolla members entire. Androecial members definite in number. Androecium 5. Androecial members free of the perianth, or adnate; all equal (ass.); coherent; 1 -whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 5; all more or less similar in shape; isomerous with the perianth; oppositisepalous (at the base of the corolla); all alternating with the corolla members. Anthers cohering; basifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; tetrasporangiate. Pollen shed in aggregates, or shed as single grains. Gynoecium 2 carpelled. The pistil 2 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synstylovarious, or eu-syncarpous; inferior. Ovary plurilocular; 2 locular. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1; bearing an ‘indusium’ beneath the stigma. Indusium cupular. Styles apical. Stigmas 1; more or less 2 - lobed. Placentation axile. Ovules 20–50 per locule (numerous); ascending; non-arillate; anatropous.

Fruit and seed features. Fruit 7–12 mm long; non-fleshy; not hairy; dehiscent (opening laterally); a capsule. Capsules valvular (4-valved). Fruit 1 and 2 celled (2 in basal part, 1 in middle to upper part); 1–2 locular; passively dehiscent. Dispersal unit the seed. Fruit 20–100 seeded (numerous). Seeds 6–15 per locule. Seed rows per locule 2. Seeds copiously endospermic. Endosperm oily. Seeds minute; non-arillate. Cotyledons 2. Embryo straight. Testa hard.

Special features. The upper lip of the corolla incorporating 2 members, the lower 3; (posterior, adaxial) lip of the corolla bilobed. Lower (abaxial) lip of the corolla 3 lobed.

Etymology. From the Greek for "flower" and "ear"; the upper corolla-lobes have large auricles (ear-shaped appendages) covering the indusium.

Taxonomic Literature

  • Wheeler, Judy; Marchant, Neville; Lewington, Margaret; Graham, Lorraine (2002). Flora of the south west, Bunbury, Augusta, Denmark. Volume 2, dicotyledons. Australian Biological Resources Study. Canberra.
  • Sage, L. W. (1998). Anthotium odontophyllum (Goodeniaceae), a new species from Western Australia.
  • Australian Biological Resources Study (1992). Flora of Australia. Volume 35, Brunoniaceae, Goodeniaceae. Australian Govt. Pub. Service. Canberra.