Common name. Fanflowers. Family Goodeniaceae.
Habit and leaf form. Trees (small), or shrubs, or herbs (or scrambler). ‘Normal’ plants, or switch-plants; sometimes with the principal photosynthesizing function transferred to stems. Leaves well developed, or much reduced. Plants unarmed, or spiny (rarely). Perennial. Leaves basal and cauline (mostly cauline). Plants with a basal concentration of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal concentrations of leaves. Stem internodes solid (ass.). Mesophytic, or xerophytic. Leaves alternate, or opposite, or whorled (rarely); spiral; petiolate, or subsessile, or sessile; non-sheathing; simple; epulvinate. Leaf blades dissected, or entire; linear, or ovate, or obovate, or oblong, or elliptic, or orbicular; when dissected, pinnatifid; pinnately veined. Leaves without stipules. Leaf blade margins entire, or serrate, or dentate. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy. Hairs present; glandular hairs present; complex hairs present, or absent. Extra-floral nectaries absent (ass.). Stem anatomy. Secondary thickening absent, or developing from a conventional cambial ring.
Reproductive type, pollination. Fertile flowers hermaphrodite. Unisexual flowers absent. Plants hermaphrodite. Entomophilous. Pollination mechanism conspicuously specialized (involving a stylar modification for pollen presentation).
Inflorescence and flower features. Flowers solitary, or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; terminal, or axillary; in cymes (in thyrses), or in racemes, or in spikes. The terminal inflorescence unit cymose, or racemose. Inflorescences terminal, or axillary. Flowers pedicellate to sessile; bracteate (opposite, leaf-like); bracteolate (small, inserted just below calyx); small to medium-sized; very irregular. The floral asymmetry involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Flowers 5 merous; cyclic; tetracyclic. Free hypanthium absent. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; (8–)10; 2 -whorled; isomerous, or anisomerous. Calyx present; 5 (often small and sometimes reduced to an undulate rim); 1 -whorled; gamosepalous; blunt-lobed; tubular. Corolla present; 5 (more or less equal); 1 -whorled; not appendiculate; gamopetalous; lobed. Corolla tube adaxially deeply split. Corolla valvate; tubular; unequal but not bilabiate (usually, the lobes digitately arranged), or bilabiate (the upper lobes sometimes shorter); hairy adaxially; white, or yellow (rarely, then a scrambling shrub), or pink, or purple (or mauve); not spurred. Androecial members definite in number. Androecium 5. Androecial members free of the perianth, or adnate; all equal (ass.); free of one another; 1 -whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 5; all more or less similar in shape (ass.); isomerous with the perianth; oppositisepalous (at the base of the corolla); all alternating with the corolla members. Anthers separate from one another; basifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; tetrasporangiate. Pollen shed in aggregates, or shed as single grains. Gynoecium 2 carpelled. The pistil 1–2(–4) celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synstylovarious to eu-syncarpous; inferior. Ovary unilocular, or plurilocular; 1–2(–4) locular. Locules secondarily divided by ‘false septa’, or without ‘false septa’. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1; bearing an ‘indusium’ beneath the stigma. Indusium cupular. Styles apical. Stigmas 1; 2 - lobed. Placentation axile. Ovules in the single cavity 1–2; 1–2 per locule; ascending; non-arillate; anatropous.
Fruit and seed features. Fruit fleshy, or non-fleshy; indehiscent; a drupe, or a nut; 1 seeded (per cell, usually). Seeds copiously endospermic. Endosperm oily. Seeds not compressed (cylindric); winged, or wingless. Cotyledons 2. Embryo straight.
Special features. The upper lip of the corolla if seen as such, incorporating 2 members, the lower 3, or suppressed, the lower incorporating all five members.
Etymology. From the Latin Scaevola, a Roman surname; from the Latin for "left-handed"; originating from C. Mucius Scaevola (507 BC) who attempted to assassinate Porsena and, on being apprehended, burned off his right hand; refers to the one-sided fan-shaped corolla of many species.
Wheeler, Judy; Marchant, Neville; Lewington, Margaret; Graham, Lorraine (2002). Flora of the south west, Bunbury, Augusta, Denmark. Volume 2, dicotyledons. Australian Biological Resources Study. Canberra.
Australian Biological Resources Study (1992). Flora of Australia. Volume 35, Brunoniaceae, Goodeniaceae. Australian Govt. Pub. Service. Canberra.
Grieve, Brian J.; Blackall, William E. (1982). How to know Western Australian wildflowers : a key to the flora of the extratropical regions of Western Australia. Part IV. University of W.A. Press. Perth.
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