Erect annual, grass-like or herb, 0.3-1 m high. Fl. green, Aug to Oct. Grey-white sand, red, brown, gravelly loam, clay.
Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Carnarvon, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Hampton, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Nullarbor, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren, Yalgoo.
IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Cape Range, Central band, Nullarbor Plain, Dandaragan Plateau, Eastern Mallee, Edel, Fitzgerald, Geraldton Hills, Hampton, Lesueur Sandplain, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Recherche, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren, Western Mallee, Wooramel.
IMCRA Regions: Abrolhos Islands, Central West Coast, Leeuwin-Naturaliste, Shark Bay, WA South Coast.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Armadale, Ashburton, Bassendean, Beverley, Boddington, Boyup Brook, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Broomehill-Tambellup, Bruce Rock, Bunbury, Busselton, Cambridge, Canning, Capel, Carnamah, Chapman Valley, Chittering, Cockburn, Coorow, Corrigin, Cranbrook, Cuballing, Cunderdin, Dalwallinu, Dandaragan, Dardanup, Denmark, Dundas, Esperance, Gnowangerup, Goomalling, Gosnells, Greater Geraldton, Harvey, Jerramungup, Kalamunda, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Kellerberrin, Kojonup, Kondinin, Koorda, Kulin, Lake Grace, Mandurah, Manjimup, Melville, Merredin, Mingenew, Moora, Morawa, Mount Marshall, Mundaring, Murray, Narembeen, Narrogin, Nedlands, Northam, Northampton, Perth, Pingelly, Plantagenet, Quairading, Ravensthorpe, Rockingham, Serpentine-Jarrahdale, Shark Bay, South Perth, Stirling, Swan, Three Springs, Toodyay, Victoria Plains, Wagin, Wanneroo, Waroona, Wickepin, Wongan-Ballidu, Wyalkatchem, York.
General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Possibly wind, agricultural machinery, livestock and mammals (on fur). Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Seedbank persistence. 6 months to 3 years (shorter if not buried).
Notes. Able to outcompete native grasses. Is allelopathic and forms extensive, fibrous root system. Can increase fire frequencies. Reportedly needs disturbance to establish. Capable of adapting morpho-physiological traits to environmental conditions, such as different water and light availability, higher mean temperatures and altitude. Self-pollinated. Produces prolific seed. Buried seed often remains dormant until exposed by cultivation or other disturbance. Predominantly germinates after onset of autumn rains, compared with Avena fatua which germinates from autumn to spring. Has no adaptions for long distance dispersal. Herbicide resistance has been recorded.
Additional information. Origin. Mediterranean/Asia. History of use/introduction. Contaminant of grain. Similar exotic species. Avena fatua.
Suggested method of management and control. Spray at 3-5 leaf stage with Fusilade® Forte at 16 ml/10 L + wetting agent or for generic fluazifop-p (212g/L active ingredient) 10mL/10L or 0.5L/ha + wetting agent. Repeat over the following 2 years. Aim to prevent seed production. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
|Germination||Y||Y||O||O||Seed germinates after rains|
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/