General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life
form. Perennial. Reproduction. Primarily seed, also root
fragments. Dispersal. Animals, soil, machinery. Seedbank
persistence. 20+ years.
Additional information. Origin. Europe and Asia.
Suggested method of management and control. Spot spray with
1% glyphosate in early bud stage, cultivation of older plants will spread root
fragments. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before
using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and
Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your
situation or state.
- Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to
their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
- Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D.
(2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd
Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
- Paczkowska, G. & Chapman, A.R. (2000) The Western Australian flora:
A descriptive catalogue. Western Australian Wildflower Society (Inc.),
Western Australian Herbarium and Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority,
- Parsons, W.T. & Cuthbertson, E.G. (2001) Noxious weeds of
Australia. 2nd Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
- Weaver, S.E. & Cavers, P.B. (1979) Dynamics of seed populations of
Rumex crispus and Rumex obtusifolius (Polygonaceae) in
disturbed and undisturbed soil. Journal of Applied Ecology,