Tufted, glabrous annual, grass-like or herb, 0.15-0.5 m high. Fl. green, Sep to Oct. Loam, sand, clay, laterite.
Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Coolgardie, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Murchison, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren, Yalgoo.
IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Dandaragan Plateau, Eastern Murchison, Fitzgerald, Geraldton Hills, Lesueur Sandplain, Mardabilla, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Recherche, Southern Cross, Southern Jarrah Forest, Tallering, Warren, Western Mallee.
IMCRA Regions: Central West Coast, Hawkesbury Shelf, Shark Bay, WA South Coast.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Armadale, Augusta-Margaret River, Belmont, Beverley, Boddington, Boyup Brook, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Busselton, Canning, Carnamah, Cockburn, Collie, Coorow, Cranbrook, Cuballing, Dandaragan, Dardanup, Denmark, Donnybrook-Balingup, Esperance, Gingin, Gnowangerup, Gosnells, Greater Geraldton, Harvey, Kalamunda, Kojonup, Kondinin, Kulin, Kwinana, Mandurah, Manjimup, Melville, Menzies, Merredin, Mundaring, Murray, Nannup, Narrogin, Northam, Northampton, Perth, Pingelly, Plantagenet, Quairading, Rockingham, Serpentine-Jarrahdale, Shark Bay, South Perth, Stirling, Swan, Victoria Plains, Wagin, Wandering, Wanneroo, Waroona, West Arthur, Westonia, Wickepin, Williams, Woodanilling, Yalgoo, York.
Alternative Names. Bole-bole.
General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Water, wind, mammals, slashing. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Seedbank persistence. 3 years. Fire response. Fire promotes germination of soil-stored seed.
Additional information. Origin. North Africa, temperate western Asia, southeastern and southwestern Europe. History of use/introduction. Seed contaminant in crops, ornamental.
Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set. Hand pull or spray at 3-5 leaf stage with Fusilade® Forte at 16 ml/10 L or 800 ml/ha (based on 500 L water/ha) + wetting agent or for generic fluazifop-p (212g/L active ingredient) 10ml/10L or 500ml/ha + wetting agent. Repeat treatment for 2 - 3 years. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/