Bromus rubens L. Red Brome
Cent.Pl. 1:5 (1755)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Sunday 31 October 1993

Tufted annual, grass-like or herb, 0.1-0.4 m high. Fl. green/red-purple, Aug to Oct. Sand, red brown clay, calcareous loam.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Coolgardie, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Hampton, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Murchison, Nullarbor, Swan Coastal Plain, Yalgoo.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Central band, Nullarbor Plain, Eastern Goldfield, Eastern Mallee, Eastern Murchison, Edel, Fitzgerald, Geraldton Hills, Hampton, Lesueur Sandplain, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Recherche, Southern Cross, Southern Jarrah Forest, Tallering, Western Mallee.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Beverley, Bruce Rock, Carnamah, Cockburn, Coolgardie, Coorow, Corrigin, Cuballing, Cunderdin, Dalwallinu, Dowerin, Dumbleyung, Dundas, Esperance, Gnowangerup, Goomalling, Greater Geraldton, Jerramungup, Kalamunda, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Kellerberrin, Kent, Kondinin, Koorda, Kulin, Lake Grace, Menzies, Merredin, Mingenew, Moora, Morawa, Mount Marshall, Mukinbudin, Narembeen, Narrogin, Northam, Northampton, Perenjori, Perth, Pingelly, Plantagenet, Ravensthorpe, Rockingham, Shark Bay, Swan, Tammin, Toodyay, Trayning, Victoria Plains, Wagin, Wandering, Wanneroo, West Arthur, Westonia, Wickepin, Wongan-Ballidu, Wyalkatchem, Yalgoo, Yilgarn, York.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

Alternative Names. Foxtail brome, foxtail chess, red brome.

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Water, mammals including livestock, contaminated seed grain, forage, wind. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Seedbank persistence. Short, less than one year. Fire response. Fire creates conditions suitable for mass germination of seed.

Notes. Commonly found on shallow, dry or poorly textured clay soils. Adapted to disturbed sites and open areas. Highly competitive with other grasses and capable of displacing native species. Initial growth is relatively slow, followed by a rapid increase in vegetative growth coinciding with warmer spring temperatures. Produces prolific seed and a large amount of biomass that increases fire risk when dried.

Additional information. Origin. Africa, Asia, and Europe. History of use/introduction. Forage for livestock, though of limited nutritional value. Similar exotic species. Bromus madritensis. Similar native species. B. arenarius.

Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set. Hand pull plants or in degraded areas use 10 ml/10 L of glyphosate on seedlings, young plants or when flowering. Alternatively spray plants at 3-5 leaf stage with Fusilade® Forte at 16 ml/10 L or 800 ml/ha (based on 500 L water/ha) + wetting agent or for generic fluazifop-p (212g/L active ingredient) 10ml/10L or 500ml/ha + wetting agent. An early and late application may be required where two Bromus species are present. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth           Y Y Y Y O      
Germination         Y Y O O O O      
Flowering               Y Y Y      
Fruiting                 Y Y Y Y  
Optimum Treatment           Y Y Y Y O O    

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • DiTomaso, J.M., Brooks, M.L., Allen, E.B., Minnich, R., Rice, P.M. and Kyser, G.B. (2006) Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning. Weed Technology, 20 (2): 535-548.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
  • National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2005) Global Invasive Species Database: Bromus rubens (grass). URL: http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=596&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN - Accessed December 2009.
  • Newman, D. (2001) Element Stewardship Abstract for Bromus rubens, Foxtail Brome, Red Brome. The Nature Conservancy, Virginia.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements