Cynosurus echinatus L. Rough Dogstail
Sp.Pl. 1:72 (1753)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Wednesday 3 November 1993

Annual, grass-like or herb, 0.1-0.4 m high. Fl. green, Nov to Dec or Jan. Sand, brown loam.


Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Esperance Plains, Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Fitzgerald, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren.

IMCRA Regions: Leeuwin-Naturaliste, WA South Coast.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Augusta-Margaret River, Busselton, Capel, Cranbrook, Dardanup, Denmark, Donnybrook-Balingup, Harvey, Kalamunda, Manjimup, Mundaring, Plantagenet, Rockingham.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 11 April 2019

Alternative Names. Hedgehog dogtail, annual dogtail, bristly dogtail grass.

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Mammals (on fur), water, mud, vehicle tyres, human shoes and clothing. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Seedbank persistence. Short, normally less than 1 year.

Notes. Produces prolific seed, although few survive into a second year. Awns on seeds aid long distance dispersal by animals. Herbicide resistance has been recorded in South America.

Additional information. Origin. Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Mediterranean Europe. History of use/introduction. Seed contaminant. Similar exotic species. Cynosurus cristatus.

Suggested method of management and control. In small populations hand remove plants in early spring before seed set. Otherwise spot spray 50 g 2,2 DPA + wetter in 10 L of water. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth           Y Y Y          
Germination         O Y              
Flowering Y               Y Y Y Y  
Fruiting Y Y                   Y  
Optimum Treatment             Y Y Y Y Y    

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.



  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Brusati E. & DiTomaso, J.M. (2003) Plant Assessment Form: Cynosurus echinatus L. California Exotic Pest Plant Council and the Southwest Vegetation Management Association URL: - Accessed November 2009.
  • Clark, D.L. & Wilson, M.V. (2003) Post-dispersal seed fates of four prairie species. American Journal of Botany, 90 (5): 730-735.
  • Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (2003) Invasive Species in Garry Oak and associated ecosystems in British Colombia: Cynosurus echinatus. URL: - Accessed November 2009.
  • Heap, I. (2009) Group A/1 Resistant Hedgehog Dogtail (Cynosurus echinatus), The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. URL: - Accessed November 2009.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: - Accessed October 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements