Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler Summer Grass
Descr.Gram. 27 (1802)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Friday 5 November 1993

Decumbent, tufted annual, grass-like or herb, 0.02-1 m high. Fl. green, Nov to Dec or Jan to Jun. Sand, clay, alluvium, sandstone.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, Northern Province, South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Carnarvon, Central Kimberley, Dampierland, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Murchison, Northern Kimberley, Ord Victoria Plain, Pilbara, Swan Coastal Plain, Victoria Bonaparte, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Cape Range, Dandaragan Plateau, Eastern Murchison, Fitzgerald, Fitzroy Trough, Geraldton Hills, Hamersley, Hart, Mitchell, Northern Jarrah Forest, Pentecost, Perth, Pindanland, Roebourne, South Kimberley Interzone, Southern Jarrah Forest, Victoria Bonaparte P1, Warren.

IMCRA Regions: Canning, Pilbara (offshore), Shoalwater Coast, WA South Coast.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Ashburton, Augusta-Margaret River, Boddington, Broome, Busselton, Cunderdin, Dandaragan, Derby-West Kimberley, East Pilbara, Gingin, Halls Creek, Jerramungup, Kalamunda, Karratha, Katanning, Leonora, Mingenew, Narrogin, Nedlands, Northampton, Perth, Port Hedland, South Perth, Swan, Toodyay, Waroona, Wyndham-East Kimberley.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 8 September 2016

Alternative Names. Henry's crabgrass, southern crabgrass.

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Mowing, movement of seed in hay. Photosynthetic Pathway. C4. Seedbank persistence. Short, several months.

Notes. Can flower and set seed repeatedly throughout the growing season. Seed can germinate over a wide pH range (between 5 and 10). Seedling emergence is greatest for seeds on the soil surface. Seeds are short-lived and do not form a large, persistent seed bank, even when buried. Adapted to heavy grazing and germination can increase after seed is consumed by cattle. Germination occurs at temperatures above 20°C, and is greatest under fluctuating temperatures between 20 and 35°C. The primary dispersal mechanism of seed over larger distances is human activity. Light is critical for seed germination and mass germination can occur with isolated rainfall if temperatures are high enough.

Additional information. Origin. Tropical Asia. History of use/introduction. Animal fodder. Similar exotic species. Digitaria sanguinalis.

Suggested method of management and control. Spray 0.5% glyphosate in spring/summer or Verdict 520® 2 ml/10 L (250 ml/ha) + wetting agent. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth Y Y Y Y           Y Y Y  
Flowering Y                     Y  
Fruiting Y Y Y                    
Optimum Treatment Y Y               Y Y Y  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Chauhan, B.S. & Johnson, D.E. (2008) Germination ecology of Southern Crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) and India Crabgrass (Digitaria longiflora): two important weeds of rice in tropics. Weed Science, 56 (5): 722-728.
  • Gardener, C.J., McIvor, J.G. & Jensen, A. (1993) Survival of seeds in tropical grasland species subject to bovine digestion. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30: 75-85.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Kobayashi, H. & Oyanagi, A. (2005) Digitaria ciliaris seed banks in untilled and tilled soybean fields. Weed Biology and Management, 5 (2): 53-61.
  • Maddox, V., Byrd, J.D., Bryson, C.T., Madsen, J.D., Ervin, G.N., Wersal, R.M. & Westbrooks, R. (Undated) Invasive plant Atlas of the Midsouth (IPAMS), Southern crabgrass Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler. GeoResources Institute, Mississippi State University URL: http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/Species.php?SName=&CName=New - Accessed November 2009.
  • McKeon, G.M. & Rose, C.W. (1985) Pasture seed dynamics in a dry monsoonal climate. Germination and seedbed environment of Stylosanthes humilis and Digitaria ciliaris. Australian Journal of Ecology, 10: 135-147.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (2008) Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems. URL: http://www.hear.org/pier/scinames.htm - Accessed January 2010.
  • Parsons, J.M. (ed.) (1995) The Australian weed control handbook. 10th Edition. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Project information and acknowledgements