Slender rhizomatous, perennial, grass-like or herb, to 1.5 m high. Fl. purple-green, Oct to Dec or Jan. Sand. Coastal sand dunes & limestone.
Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Coolgardie, Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.
IBRA Subregions: Eastern Goldfield, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren.
IMCRA Regions: Central West Coast, WA South Coast.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Augusta Margaret River, Busselton, Cockburn, Dandaragan, Gingin, Irwin, Kalgoorlie-Boulder.
General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Perennial, rhizomatous. Reproduction. Rhizomes, possibly seed. Dispersal. Inappropriate plantings for dune stabilization. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Seedbank persistence. Short to medium term, days-5 years. Fire response. Resprouts.
Notes. Adapted to warm temperatures, a range of light intensities and habitats with mobile sand. Is an aggressive invader of dunes, where it is known to smother native flora. Populations tend to senesce in dune systems where sand movement has been reduced. Culms become largely dormant during winter, although root and rhizome growth continues. Has adaptions to reduce water loss and survive in dry environments, including sunken reduced stomata and in-rolled leaves. Vegetative spread can be rapid, however establishment from seedlings in naturalised populations including areas in New Zealand has been poor.
Additional information. Origin. South Africa. History of use/introduction. Dune stabilisation.
Suggested method of management and control. Spray with Verdict 520® 10 ml/10 L (500 ml/ha) or glyphosate 1% + penetrant. Several sequential applications will likely be required. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/