Trifolium angustifolium L. Narrowleaf Clover
Sp.Pl. 2:769 (1753)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 22 August 2007

Erect or decumbent annual, herb, 0.1-0.6 m high. Fl. pink-purple, white, green, Sep to Dec or Jan. White to grey sand, brown sandy clay, ironstone gravel, granite. Coastal dunes, flats, rock outcrops, along tracks, in wetlands.


Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Swan Coastal Plain.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P2, Fitzgerald, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Recherche, Southern Jarrah Forest, Western Mallee.

IMCRA Regions: Central West Coast, Leeuwin-Naturaliste.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Armadale, Busselton, Chittering, Cockburn, Esperance, Gnowangerup, Gosnells, Kojonup, Murray, Narrogin, Plantagenet, Rockingham, Swan, Waroona.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 26 August 2019

Alternative Names. Narrow Clover, Narrow-leaf Clover, White Clover.

General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Sheep (adhesion), agricultural activities.

Notes. Has low germination rates in unsuitable environmental conditions. Seed attached to the fleece of sheep can be transported large distances. Growth is directly related to water availability - under low water availablity growth rate can decelerate but flowering remains unaffected.

Additional information. Origin. North Africa, Macronesia, temperate Asia, Europe. History of use/introduction. Forage, pasture improvement. Similar exotic species. Trifolium species.

Suggested method of management and control. Spot spray with 1% glyphosate before flowering, otherwise spot spray Lontrel® 3 ml/10 L (150 ml/ha) up to the 6 leaf stage. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Germination         Y Y Y            
Active Growth           Y Y Y Y Y Y    
Flowering Y               Y Y Y Y  
Fruiting Y O                 Y Y  
Optimum Treatment             Y Y Y O O    

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.



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  • Can, E., Celiktas, N., Hatipoglu, R. & Avci, S. (2009) Breaking seed dormancy of some annual Medicago and Trifolium species by different treatments. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 14 (2): 72-78.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Manzano, P. & Malo, J.E. (2006) Extreme long-distance seed dispersal via sheep. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4 (5): 244-248.
  • Tuttobene, R., Gresta, F., Sortino, O., Frasca Polara, F., Dipasquale, M. & Abbate, V. (2008) Characterization of native populations of Trifolium spp. Options Mediterraneennes, A (79): 395-398.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: - Accessed October 2009.
  • Vrahnakis, M.S., Kostopoulou, P., Lazaridou, M., Merov, T. & Fotiadis, G. (2008) Modelling growth responses of annual legumes to water shortage. Options Mediterraneennes, A (79): 275-278.

Project information and acknowledgements