Erect or decumbent annual or perennial, herb, to 0.4 m high. Fl. white/pink, Sep to Nov or Jan. Grey sand, black or brown sandy clay, peat, sandy loam, gravel, laterite, granite. Sinter-wet flats, along creeks and rivers, roadverges.
Alternative Names. Alsike Clover, Hybrid Clover, Swedish Clover.
General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Agricultural activities. Seedbank persistence. More than 3 years.
Notes. Can also be a short-lived perennial. Forms dominant stands and may delay establishment of native species. Adapted to a wide range of environments but grows best in cool rather than warm temperate conditions, thus is mainly distributed in cool temperate and sub-arctic zones. Tolerates infertile, wet, acid soils however growth responds to higher soil fertility. Grows vigorously in summer. Has low germination rates in unsuitable environmental conditions. Alters edaphic conditions by nitrogen fixation. Produces prolific seed. Usually only observed in disturbed sites but can germinate in intact bushland. Has no innate adaptions for long distance dispersal.
Additional information. Origin. Europe, west Asia, north Africa. History of use/introduction. Forage, erosion control, lawns. Similar exotic species. Trifolium arvense, T. campestre, T. repens.
Suggested method of management and control. Spot spray with 1% glyphosate before flowering. Otherwise spot spray Lontrel® 3 ml/10 L (150 ml/ha) up to 6 leaf stage. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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