Trifolium hybridum L. Alsike Clover
Sp.Pl. 2:766 (1753)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 22 August 2007

Erect or decumbent annual or perennial, herb, to 0.4 m high. Fl. white/pink, Sep to Nov or Jan. Grey sand, black or brown sandy clay, peat, sandy loam, gravel, laterite, granite. Sinter-wet flats, along creeks and rivers, roadverges.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 8 September 2016

Alternative Names. Alsike Clover, Hybrid Clover, Swedish Clover.

General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Agricultural activities. Seedbank persistence. More than 3 years.

Notes. Can also be a short-lived perennial. Forms dominant stands and may delay establishment of native species. Adapted to a wide range of environments but grows best in cool rather than warm temperate conditions, thus is mainly distributed in cool temperate and sub-arctic zones. Tolerates infertile, wet, acid soils however growth responds to higher soil fertility. Grows vigorously in summer. Has low germination rates in unsuitable environmental conditions. Alters edaphic conditions by nitrogen fixation. Produces prolific seed. Usually only observed in disturbed sites but can germinate in intact bushland. Has no innate adaptions for long distance dispersal.

Additional information. Origin. Europe, west Asia, north Africa. History of use/introduction. Forage, erosion control, lawns. Similar exotic species. Trifolium arvense, T. campestre, T. repens.

Suggested method of management and control. Spot spray with 1% glyphosate before flowering. Otherwise spot spray Lontrel® 3 ml/10 L (150 ml/ha) up to 6 leaf stage. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Germination         Y Y Y Y          
Active Growth Y         Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  
Flowering Y               Y Y Y Y  
Fruiting U                   U U  
Optimum Treatment           Y Y Y O O O    

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Anon. (2006) Non-native plants of Alaska: Alsike clover, Trifolium hybridum L. Alaska Natural Heritage Program, Anchorage, Alaska. URL: http://akweeds.uaa.alaska.edu/pdfs/species_bios_pdfs/Species_bios_TRHY1.pdf - Accessed May 2010.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Bulinska-Radomska, Z. (2002) Reproductive biology, genetic diversity and population structure of Trifolium species. In Broad variation and precise characterization - limitation for the future. Proceedings of the XVIth EUCARPIA Genetic Resources Section workshop, Poznan, Poland, 16-20 May 2001. 2002. 156-161.
  • Can, E., Celiktas, N., Hatipoglu, R. & Avci, S. (2009) Breaking seed dormancy of some annual Medicago and Trifolium species by different treatments. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 14 (2): 72-78.
  • Frame, J. (Undated) Trifolium species L. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations URL: http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/gbase/Default.htm - Accessed May 2010.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • McGraw, R.L., Wyse, D.L. & Elling, L.J. (1983) Tolerance of Alsike Clover (Trifolium hybridum), Red Clover (T. pratense), and Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) to TCA and Dalapon. Weed Science, 31: 100-102.
  • Thomas, B.D. & Bowman, W.D. (1998) Influence of N2-fixing Trifolium on plant species composition in the alpine tundra. Oecologia, 115 (1/2): 26-31.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements