Trifolium incarnatum L. Crimson Clover
Sp.Pl. 2:769 (1753)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 22 August 2007

Erect or ascending annual, herb, 0.2-0.5 m high. Fl. red/white, Oct to Nov. Laterite loam.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Jarrah Forest.

IBRA Subregions: Northern Jarrah Forest.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Mundaring.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

Alternative Names. Crimson Clover, Italian Clover, French Clover, Carnation Clover.

General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed. Toxicity. Can be posionous to mammals. Seedbank persistence. Short, less 1- 2 years.

Notes. Adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, more so than other annual forage Trifolium species, although not to poorly-drained or saline soils. Has vigorous seedling growth and strong late autumn and winter growth. Matures in early spring. Because of the high production of soft-coated seed and rapid loss of dormancy, germination can occur in summer rather than in the autumn.

Additional information. Origin. Macronesia, temperate Asia, Europe. History of use/introduction. Forage, bee plant, soil improver, erosion control. Similar exotic species. Trifolium species.

Suggested method of management and control. Spot spray with 1% glyphosate before flowering, otherwise spot spray Lontrel® 3 ml/10 L (150 ml/ha) up to 6 leaf stage. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Germination O O O Y Y Y              
Active Growth       O Y Y Y Y Y Y      
Flowering                   Y Y    
Fruiting                     Y Y  
Optimum Treatment           O Y Y Y        

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Bulinska-Radomska, Z. (2002) Reproductive biology, genetic diversity and population structure of Trifolium species. In Broad variation and precise characterization - limitation for the future. Proceedings of the XVIth EUCARPIA Genetic Resources Section workshop, Poznan, Poland, 16-20 May 2001. 2002. 156-161.
  • Can, E., Celiktas, N., Hatipoglu, R. & Avci, S. (2009) Breaking seed dormancy of some annual Medicago and Trifolium species by different treatments. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 14 (2): 72-78.
  • Frame, J. (Undated) Trifolium species L. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations URL: http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/gbase/Default.htm - Accessed May 2010.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Thomas, B.D. & Bowman, W.D. (1998) Influence of N2-fixing Trifolium on plant species composition in the alpine tundra. Oecologia, 115 (1/2): 26-31.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements