Erect or prostrate annual, herb, to 0.3 m high. Fl. pink-purple-white, Aug to Dec. Grey sand, grey-black sandy clay, black peat, gravelly loam, laterite, granite, limestone. Along rivers, dunes, track edges, road verges, disturbed ground, gardens.
Alternative Names. Persian Clover, Bird-eye Clover, Reversed Clover, Shaftal Clover.
General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Agricultural activities. Toxicity. Possibly poisonous to stock. Seedbank persistence. Short to medium term.
Notes. Has low germination rates in unsuitable environmental conditions. Produces mild allelochemicals, stubble is also allelopathic. Seven commercial varieties are available in Australia, these differ greatly in their adaptation to different environments. Several varieties are soft-seeded, have moderate tolerance of salinity and are capable of fixing nitrogen via the taproot and lateral roots. Trifolium species capable of high rates of nitrogen fixation may influence the abundance and growth of other plants species.
Additional information. Origin. Macronesia, north Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Europe. History of use/introduction. Forage, soil improver. Similar exotic species. Trifolium species.
Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set for 5 years. Spot spray with 1% glyphosate before flowering. Otherwise spot spray with 4 g Lontrel®, 1 g Logran®, 0.1 g metsulfuron methyl (600 g/L) or 0.1 g Glean® in 10 L water + wetting agent when plants are actively growing. Repeat annually for several years. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/