Hordeum marinum Huds.
Fl.Angl. Ed.2,1:57 (1778)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Monday 9 August 1999

Annual, grass-like or herb. Sandy clay.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Fitzgerald, Geraldton Hills, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren, Western Mallee.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Bruce Rock, Busselton, Canning, Capel, Chapman Valley, Chittering, Dardanup, Gnowangerup, Greater Geraldton, Harvey, Manjimup, Murray, Narrogin, Pingelly, Plantagenet, Three Springs, Wagin, West Arthur, Wickepin, Wongan-Ballidu, York.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

Alternative Names. Mediterranean barley, barley sea grass.

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Mammals (on fur), contaminant in hay, tyres, clothing, machinery. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Seedbank persistence. 2 years.

Notes. Naturalised in North and South America and southern Africa. Largely associated with pastures however can invade some native plant communities. Colonises disturbed low-lying saline sites. Most seed germinates after first autumn rains. Few seeds survive more than one year. Has low to moderate waterlogging tolerance and high salintity tolerance. Produces sharp spikelets and awns that may injure wildlife and stock.

Additional information. Origin. Northern Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Europe. History of use/introduction. Pioneer species on salt-affected land, fodder for stock, contaminant in hay. Similar exotic species. Hordeum hystrix, H. murinum.

Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set. Hand pull or spray with Fusilade® Forte at 16 ml/10 L or 800ml/ha (based on 500 L water/ha) + wetting agent or for generic fluazifop-p (212g/L active ingredient) 10ml/10L or 500ml/ha + wetting agent 4-6 weeks after opening rains or in winter when the grass has 2-8 leaves. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth       Y Y Y Y Y Y Y      
Germination       O Y Y              
Flowering                 Y Y Y    
Fruiting                     Y Y  
Optimum Treatment           O Y Y Y        

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • AWI and Salinity CRC (2006) SALTdeck Series - Sea barley grass (Hordeum marinum). University of Western Australia, Crawley. URL: http://www.saltlandgenie.org.au/LiteratureRetrieve.aspx?ID=23977 - Accessed January 2010.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Brusati, E. & DiTomaso, J. (2003) California Invasive Plant Inventory Assessment Form - Hordeum marinum, H. murinum. California Invasive Plant Council URL: http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory/PAF/Hordeum%20marinum.pdf - Accessed January 2010.
  • Department of Primary Industries (2009) Sea Barley-grass. State of Victoria URL: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/Vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/water_sss_sea_barley - Accessed January 2010.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Malik, A.I., English, J.P. & Colmer, T.D. (2008) Tolerance of Hordeum marinum accessions to O2 deficiency, salinity and these stresses combined. Annals of Botany, 103 (2): 237-248.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
  • Popay, A.I. (1981) Germination of seeds of five annual species of barley grass. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18: 547-558.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.
  • Von Bothmer, R., Flink, J., Jacobsen, N. & Jørgensen, R.B. (2008) Variation and differentiation in Hordeum marinum (Poaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany, 9 (1): 1-10.

Project information and acknowledgements