Annual, grass-like or herb. Sandy clay.
Alternative Names. Mediterranean barley, barley sea grass.
General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Mammals (on fur), contaminant in hay, tyres, clothing, machinery. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Seedbank persistence. 2 years.
Notes. Naturalised in North and South America and southern Africa. Largely associated with pastures however can invade some native plant communities. Colonises disturbed low-lying saline sites. Most seed germinates after first autumn rains. Few seeds survive more than one year. Has low to moderate waterlogging tolerance and high salintity tolerance. Produces sharp spikelets and awns that may injure wildlife and stock.
Additional information. Origin. Northern Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Europe. History of use/introduction. Pioneer species on salt-affected land, fodder for stock, contaminant in hay. Similar exotic species. Hordeum hystrix, H. murinum.
Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set. Hand pull or spray with Fusilade® Forte at 16 ml/10 L or 800ml/ha (based on 500 L water/ha) + wetting agent or for generic fluazifop-p (212g/L active ingredient) 10ml/10L or 500ml/ha + wetting agent 4-6 weeks after opening rains or in winter when the grass has 2-8 leaves. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.