Lolium rigidum Gaudin Wimmera Ryegrass
Agrost.Helv. 1:334-335 (1811)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Wednesday 24 November 1993

Erect or spreading annual, grass-like or herb, 0.3-1 m high. Fl. green-yellow, Sep to Nov. White or brown sand, sandy clay, gravelly loam. Roadsides, dunes, winter-wet flats, lake edges.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Eastern Mallee, Fitzgerald, Geraldton Hills, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Recherche, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren, Western Mallee.

IMCRA Regions: Central West Coast, Leeuwin-Naturaliste, WA South Coast.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Armadale, Bruce Rock, Bunbury, Busselton, Canning, Capel, Chapman Valley, Cockburn, Collie, Coorow, Corrigin, Cranbrook, Cunderdin, Dalwallinu, Dandaragan, Denmark, Dowerin, Dumbleyung, Esperance, Gnowangerup, Goomalling, Greater Geraldton, Kellerberrin, Kondinin, Kulin, Lake Grace, Mandurah, Manjimup, Melville, Mingenew, Moora, Murray, Nannup, Narembeen, Narrogin, Nedlands, Northam, Perth, Pingelly, Plantagenet, Ravensthorpe, Rockingham, South Perth, Stirling, Swan, Tammin, Trayning, Victoria Plains, Vincent, Wagin, Wanneroo, West Arthur, Wickepin, Wongan-Ballidu, Woodanilling, York.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Water, wind, mammals, combine harvesters. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Toxicity. Seed heads can become infected with fungal diseases and bacteria making this species toxic to stock. Pollen causes hay fever. Seedbank persistence. 2-4 years.

Notes. Naturalised in all Australian states. Found on a range of soil types from sandy loams to heavy clays. Hybridisation between Lolium species can make identification difficult. Has marginal to moderate salt tolerance, does not survive extended periods of waterlogging and is intolerant of shade. Allepothatic. Sets prolific seed. Seeds are dormant following dispersal for about 2 months, but this can vary greatly between cultivars and environmental conditions. Temperature and rainfall have a marked effect on germination. Herbicide resistance has been well documented.

Additional information. Origin. Mediterranean. History of use/introduction. Pasture. Similar exotic species. Lolium perenne, L. multiflorum.

Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set. Hand pull or spray with grass selective herbicide such as Fusilade® Forte in winter 4-6 weeks after opening rains. For larger plants up to flowering, increase rates of grass selective herbicide 3 to 4 fold. In agricultural areas, populations may be resistant to these herbicides and glyphosate may be needed. Spray 10 ml/10 L glyphosate when plants are vegetative up to when seed heads are emerging. Late season applications of herbicide can reduce the numbers of seeds produced, viablity and seedling fitness. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth         O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  
Germination         O Y O            
Flowering Y               Y Y Y Y  
Fruiting Y Y               O Y Y  
Manual Removal             Y Y Y Y Y Y  
Herbicide Treatment O         Y Y Y Y Y O O  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Anon. (2009) Grass weed database - Lolium rigidum Gaudin. Bayer Crop Science URL: https://www.cropscience.bayer.com/en/crop-compendium/pests-diseases-weeds/weeds/lolium-rigidum.aspx - Accessed January 2010.
  • AWI and Salinity CRC (2006) SALTdeck series - Annual ryegrass Lolium rigidum. University of WA, Crawley. URL: http://www.saltlandgenie.org.au/LiteratureRetrieve.aspx?ID=23980.
  • Bhagirath, S.C., Gurjeet, G. & Preston, C. (2006) Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Weed Science, 54: 1004-1012.
  • Blanco-Moreno, J.M., Chamorro, L., Massalles, R.M., Recasens, J. & Sans, F.X. (2004) Spatial distribution of Lolium rigidum seedlings following seed dispersal by combine harvesters. Weed Research, 44 (5): 375-387.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Busi, R., Yu, Q., Barrett-Lennard, R. & Powles, S. (2008) Long distance pollen-mediated flow of herbicide resistance genes in Lolium rigidum. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 117 (8).
  • Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. & Robinson, K.E. (1992) Environmental weed invasions in Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne.
  • Gallagher, R.S., Steadman, K.J. & Crawford, A.D. (2004) Alleviation of dormancy in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds by hydration and after-ripening. Weed Science, 52: 968-975.
  • Gill, G.S. (1996) Ecology of annual ryegrass. Plant Protection Quarterly, 11 (1): 195-198.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
  • Palta, J.A. & Peltzer, S.J. (2001) Annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) reduces the uptake and utilisation of fertiliser-nitrogen by wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 52 (5): 573-581.
  • Powles, S.B., Lorraine-Colwill, D.F., Dellow, J.J. & Preston, C. (1998) Evolved resistance to glyphosate in rigid rye grass (Lolium ryegrass) in Australia. Weed Science, 46: 604-607.
  • Price, P.C., Fisher, J.M. & Kerr, A. (2008) Annual ryegrass toxicity: parasitism of Lolium rigidum by a seedgall forming nematode (Anguina sp.). Annals of Applied Biology, 91 (3): 359-369.
  • San Emeterio, L., Arroyo, A. & Canals, R.M. (2004) Allelopathic potential of Lolium rigidum Gaud. on the early growth of three associated pasture species. Grass and forage science, 59: 107-112.
  • Stanton, R., Piltz, J., Pratley, J., Kaiser, A., Hudson, D. & Dill, G. (2002) Annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seed survival and digestibility in cattle and sheep. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 42: 111-115.
  • Steadman, K.J., Crawford, A.D. & Gallagher, R.S. (2003) Dormancy release in Lolium rigidum seeds is a function of thermal after-ripening time and seed water content. Functional Plant Biology, 30: 345-352.
  • Steadman, K.J., Eaton, D.M., Plummer, J.A., Ferris, D.G. & Powles, S.B. (2006) Late-season non-selective herbicide application reduces Lolium rigidum seed numbers, seed viability, and seedling fitness. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 57: 133-141.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements