Lolium temulentum L. Drake
Sp.Pl. 1:83 (1753)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Friday 5 September 1997

Annual, grass-like or herb, 0.2-1 m high. Fl. green, Oct to Dec.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Warren.

IMCRA Regions: Abrolhos Islands.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Augusta Margaret River, Greater Geraldton, Murray, York.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 26 August 2019

Alternative Names. Bearded darnel, darnel lolium, poison darnel, poison ryegrass.

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Annual, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Water, wind, agriculture. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Toxicity. Seeds are susceptible to a fungal infection which can have toxic effects.

Notes. Tolerant of frost. Prefers light sand, medium loam or heavy clay soils. These may be acidic, neutral or alkaline. Intolerant of shade and requires moist soil. Has a short life cycle (2–3 months). Flowers are self-fertile and hermaphroditic (have both male and female parts). Water stress can inhibit flowering. There are both awned and awnless varieties.

Additional information. Origin. Europe, Mediterranean. History of use/introduction. Weed of wheat and barley crops. Similar exotic species. Lolium perenne.

Suggested method of management and control. Prevent seed set. Spray with Fusilade® Forte at 16 ml/10 L + wetting agent or for generic fluazifop-p (212g/L active ingredient) 10ml/10L+ wetting agent before stem elongation. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth           Y Y Y Y Y Y    
Germination           Y Y            
Flowering Y               Y Y Y Y  
Fruiting Y                   Y Y  
Manual Removal Y           Y Y Y Y Y Y  
Herbicide Treatment             Y Y Y O      

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Anon. (2008) Plants for a future database - Lolium temulentum - L. , England and Wales. URL: http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Lolium+temulentum - Accessed January 2010.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. & Robinson, K.E. (1992) Environmental weed invasions in Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • King, R.W. & Evans, L.T. (1977) Inhibition of flowering in Lolium temulentum L. by water stress: a role for abscisic acid. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 4: 225-233.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • Senda, T. & Tominaga, T. (2004) Genetic diversity of Darnel (Lolium temulentum L.) in Malo, Ethiopia depends on traditional farming systems. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53 (3): 449-451.
  • Tohrui, T. & Takeshi, F. (2004) Awn of darnel (Lolium temulentum L.) as an anthropogenic dispersal organ: A case study in Malo, south-western Ethiopia. Weed Biology and Managemen, 4 (4): 218-221.

Project information and acknowledgements