Erect, spiny shrub, to 2 m high. Fl. yellow, Jan to Dec. Alluvium. River banks.
General Biology. Growth form. Shrub. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Water. Time to first flowering. 1 year. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Resprouts and produces root suckers. Seedbank persistence. Medium, evidence of persistent soil seed bank. Fire response. Mature plants killed by hot fire. Can resprout after cool burn. Prolific germination of soil stored seed can follow fire.
Additional information. Origin. Tropical Africa, eastern Australia, New Guinea, the Philippines, many Pacific Islands, Central and South America and new Zealand. History of use/introduction. Garden escape.
Suggested method of management and control. Hand pull small plants ensuring removal of as much root material as possible. Foliar spray with 1.5% glyphosate or try cut and paint using 50% glyphosate. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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