Rhizomatous, tussocky aquatic perennial, grass-like or herb, 1-3 m high. Fl. white-brown, Dec or Jan to Aug. Sand. Wet places.
Beard’s Provinces: Northern Province, South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Esperance Plains, Jarrah Forest, Victoria Bonaparte.
IBRA Subregions: Recherche, Southern Jarrah Forest, Victoria Bonaparte P1.
IMCRA Regions: WA South Coast.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Esperance, Wyndham-East Kimberley.
Alternative Names. Ditch reed, giant reed.
General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Perennial, rhizomatous/stoloniferous. Reproduction. Rhizomes, stolons, occasionally seed. Dispersal. Wind, water, road construction and maintenance. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3. Fire response. Resprouts.
Notes. Widely naturalised. Can form very large dense stands in wetlands where it is able to have a significant impact on plant and animal diversity. Long-lived and fast growing with a very vigorous and invasive running rootstock. Capable of reproduction by seeds, but primarily reproduces asexually by rhizomes. Seed viablity and dormancy differs greatly, seed generally has low viablity, but prolific amounts are produced. Disturbance that removes competitors and enriches nutrients strongly promotes spread. Dispersal to new sites is typically by seed. Moderately tolerant of saline water. Allelopathic.
Additional information. Origin. Occurs in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, Australia, however its true origin is unclear. History of use/introduction. Grown commercially, thatching, fodder, cellulose production, erosion control, medicine, edible foods.
Suggested method of management and control. In summer dry areas, slashing over succesive years reduces biomass. Spot spray with glyphosate in late summer/early autumn after flowering or apply as a cut stump treatment. Repeated treatments for several years are often required. Herbicides in combination with burning can be effective. Repeated cutting or breaking of stems below the water level may be effective, however may not kill all stems. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/