Piptatherum miliaceum (L.) Coss. Rice Millet
Notes Pl.Crit. 3:129 (1851)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Thursday 2 December 1993

Tufted perennial, grass-like or herb, 1.5 m high. Fl. green/purple, Oct to Dec or Jan or Jul (occasionally). Sand, granite.


Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Lesueur Sandplain, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Cambridge, Donnybrook-Balingup, Irwin, Mundaring, Perth, Stirling, Tammin, Toodyay, York.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 26 August 2019

Alternative Names. Smilograss, smilo.

General Biology. Growth form. Grass. Life form. Perennial, caespitose. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Mammals, wind, water. Photosynthetic Pathway. C3.

Additional information. Origin. Northern Africa, temperate western Asia, Europe. History of use/introduction. Used for heavy metal uptake in mine tailings, erosion control, revegetation, animal forage.

Suggested method of management and control. Cut out young plants. Slash larger clumps and spot spray with glyphosate. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Active Growth           Y Y Y Y Y Y    
Germination         U U U            
Flowering                   Y Y Y  
Fruiting U U                      
Manual Removal             Y Y Y Y Y Y  
Herbicide Treatment             Y Y Y Y Y    

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.



  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. & Robinson, K.E. (1992) Environmental weed invasions in Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne.
  • Conesa, H.M., Schulia, R. & Nowack, B. (2007) A laboratory study on revegetation and metal uptake in native plant species from neutral mine tailings. Water Air Soil Pollut, 183: 201-212.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Mauromicale, G. & Ierna, A. (1994) Persistance of the effectiveness of seed treatments on germination of Oryzopsis miliacea (L.). Rivista di Agronomia, 28 (4): 433-437.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements