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Erect or spreading, short-lived perennial, herb or shrub, 0.45-2 m high. Fl. white, Mar to Apr or Jun to Dec. Sandy soils. Along rivers & around lakes.
Alternative Names. American Nightshade, Black Nightshade, Small-flowered Nightshade.
General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Birds, mammals, water, soil, machinery. Toxicity. Immature fruit is poisonous.
Notes. Widely naturalised in the tropics. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female parts) and are insect-pollinated. Shade reduces seed production. Requires moist soil. Has proteins that act as defense against insects. Species in the Solanum nigrum complex (including S. americanum) differ in susceptibility to herbicides, especially to chlorsulfuron and surfactants, and biotypes are resistant to paraquat. Declared weed in the United States.
Additional information. Origin. North and South America. History of use/introduction. Food, medicines. Similar exotic species. Solanum nigrum.
Suggested method of management and control. Hand weed small infestations. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.