Solanum aviculare G.Forst. Kangaroo Apple
Pl.Esc. 42,no.12 (1786)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Wednesday 24 April 1996

Erect shrub, 1-4 m high. Fl. blue-violet.


Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Swan Coastal Plain.

IBRA Subregions: Dandaragan Plateau, Perth.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Gingin, South Perth.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 26 August 2019

General Biology. Growth form. Shrub. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Birds, small mammals (including possums, mice and rats). Time to first flowering. 2+ years. Toxicity. Unripe fruit is toxic to humans, potentially toxic to sheep and cattle. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Resprouts, produces root suckers. Seedbank persistence. Soil, long, 5+ years.

Additional information. Origin. South-eastern Asia, eastern Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Zealand. History of use/introduction. Garden escape, also cultivated for medicinal use. Similar exotic species. S. laciniatum.

Suggested method of management and control. Hand pull small plants. Larger plants, inject 50% glyphosate in summer-autumn. Alternatively basal bark with 250 ml Access® in 15 L of diesel to base 50 cm of trunk. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Optimum Treatment Y Y Y Y Y O         O Y  
Flowering Y Y O             O Y Y  
Fruiting   Y Y Y                  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.



  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
  • Navie, S. & Adkins, S. (2008) Environmental Weeds of Australia, An interactive identification and information resource for over 1000 invasive plants. Centre for Biological Information Technology, The University of Queensland.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2009) Solanaceae Source. URL: - Accessed September 2009.
  • Williams, P.A., Karl, B.J., Bannister, P. & Lee, W.G. (2008) Small mammals as potential seed dispersers in New Zealand. Austral Ecology, 25 (5): 523-532.

Project information and acknowledgements