Solanum laciniatum Aiton Kangaroo Apple
Hort.Kew. 1:247 (1789)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Friday 26 April 1996

Shrub, 1-4 m high. Fl. purple-blue, Jan to Feb.


Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Fitzgerald, Lesueur Sandplain, Perth, Recherche, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren.

IMCRA Regions: WA South Coast.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Bayswater, Denmark, Donnybrook-Balingup, Esperance, Irwin, Jerramungup, Manjimup, Plantagenet.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 26 August 2019

General Biology. Growth form. Shrub. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Birds, mammals. Time to first flowering. Resprouts. Toxicity. Unripe fruit is toxic. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Resprouts, produces root suckers. Seedbank persistence. Soil, short, 1.5 years. Fire response. Regenerates well from seed after fire.

Notes. Seed has high germination rates. Is an opportunistic plant that regenerates well after fire or soil disturbance.

Additional information. Origin. South-eastern Australia, New Zealand. History of use/introduction. Garden escape. Also cultivated for medicinal use. Similar exotic species. Solanum aviculare.

Suggested method of management and control. Hand pull small plants. Inject 50% glyphosate in summer-autumn. Alternatively, basal bark with 250 ml Access® in 15 L of diesel to base 50 cm of trunk. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Optimum Treatment Y Y Y Y Y O         O Y  
Flowering Y Y             Y Y Y Y  
Fruiting Y Y O               O Y  
Germination       O Y Y Y            

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.



  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Burrows, C.J. (1996) Germination behaviour of seeds of the New Zealand woody species Ascarina lucida, Coprosma grandifolia, Melicytus lanceolatus, and Solanum laciniatum. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 34 (4): 509-515.
  • Corangamite Seed Supply & Revegetation Network (2007) Corangamite Region Guidelines: Solanum laciniatum, Kangaroo Apple. Florabank, Australian Government,
  • Donaldson, S. (1983) Solanum laciniatum. Growing Native Plants, Australian National Botanic Gardens, Australian National Herbarium. Australian National Botanic Gardens, Available at:
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
  • Navie, S. & Adkins, S. (2008) Environmental Weeds of Australia, An interactive identification and information resource for over 1000 invasive plants. Centre for Biological Information Technology, The University of Queensland.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2009) Solanaceae Source. URL: - Accessed September 2009.

Project information and acknowledgements