Plantago major L. Greater Plantain
Sp.Pl. 1:112-113 (1753)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Tuesday 25 March 1997

Rosetted perennial, herb, 0.1-0.8 m high. Fl. green, Oct to Dec or Jan to Feb. Usually on sandy soils. Winter-wet depressions.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P2, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren.

IMCRA Regions: Leeuwin-Naturaliste.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Augusta-Margaret River, Bassendean, Canning, Chittering, Cockburn, Denmark, Gingin, Manjimup, Nannup, Perth, Victoria Park, Wanneroo, Wickepin.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

Alternative Names. Broadleaf Plantain, Common Plantain, Rat-tail Plantain.

General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Perennial. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Soil, water. Seedbank persistence. Up to 40 years.

Notes. Seed requires complete light for germination, and because of this establishment is more inhibited than P. lanceolata amongst other vegetation. Also has lower competitive ability caused by later germination, smaller seedling size and shorter leaves. Several variants are grown as ornamentals.

Additional information. Origin. Eurasia. History of use/introduction. Ornamental. Similar exotic species. Plantago lanceolata.

Suggested method of management and control. Hand remove isolated/small infestations. Spray in early stages of growth with 1% glyphosate. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Germination         U U              
Active Growth O O O Y Y Y O O Y Y Y O  
Flowering Y Y               Y Y Y  
Fruiting Y Y Y                 Y  
Manual Removal Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  
Herbicide Treatment           Y Y Y Y Y      

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Blood, K. (2001) Environmental weeds: a field guide for SE Australia. C.H. Jerram and Associates, Melbourne.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Hawthorn, W. R. (1974) The biology of Canadian Weeds. 4. Plantago major and P. rugelii. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 54: 383-396.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Lotz, L.A.P. (1990) The relation between age and size at first flowering of Plantago major in various habitats. Journal of Ecology, 78 (3): 757-771.
  • Sagar, G.R. & Harper, J.L. (1961) Controlled interference with natural populations of Plantago lanceolata, P. major and P. media. Weed Research, 1 (3): 163–176.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.
  • van de Toorn, J. & Pons, T.L. (1988) Establishment of Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L. among grass. Oecologia, 76: 341-347.
  • Wilken, D. & Hannah, L. (1998) Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginacae) English Plantain and Plantago major L. Common Plantain..

Project information and acknowledgements