Chrysanthemoides monilifera (L.) Norl. Boneseed
Stud.Calenduleae 1:374 (1943)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Friday 3 September 1999

Shrub, 0.8-3 m high. Fl. yellow, Jun to Oct. Swampy loam, lateritic sandy clay. Coastal areas, roadsides, waste areas.


Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Jarrah Forest.

IBRA Subregions: Southern Jarrah Forest.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 26 August 2019

Alternative Names. Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera.

General Biology. Growth form. Shrub. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Birds, foxes, water, soil, machinery, garden refuse. Time to first flowering. 1-3 years. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Does not resprout or produce root suckers. Seedbank persistence. Medium/long, 1-20 years. Fire response. Hot fire kills mature plants. Cooler fires results in some resprouting. Fire can destroy seed in surface soil but releases dormancy in seed buried deeper in the soil profile.

Notes. A number of biological control agents have been released in Australia. There are two subspecies, monilifera (boneseed) and rotunda (bitou bush). Subspecies rotunda has not been found in Western Australia. Germination is promoted by soil disturbance and fire. Forms a very large soil seed bank, up to 5000 seeds per square metre. Grazing by wallabies has limited spread in Tasmania. Alters nutrient cycling and may disrupt ecosystem resilience. Has allelopathic properties.

Additional information. Origin. South Africa. History of use/introduction. Garden escape, dune stabilisation. Similar exotic species. Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotunda.

Suggested method of management and control. Hand pull or dig out small plants (to 1m), ensuring removal of all root material. Cut and paint or stem inject 100% glyphosate or foliar spray with 1% glyphosate. Monitor site for recruitment from seedbank. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Flowering Y O O O O O O Y Y Y Y Y Fls all yr in ideal conditions
Fruiting Y O               Y Y Y  
Germination O O Y Y Y Y O O O O O O  
Active Growth Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Grows slowly in winter
Optimum Treatment Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.



  • Brougham, K.J., Cherry, H. & Downey, P.O. (eds.) (2006) Boneseed Management Manual, Current Management and Control Options for Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) in Australia. Department of Environment and Conservation NSW, Sydney, New South Wales. URL: - Accessed December 2008.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Ens, E.J. & French, K. (2008) Exotic woody invader limits the recruitment of three indigenous plant species. Biological Conservation, 141 (2): 590-595.
  • Ens, E.J., French, K. & Bremner, J.B. (2008) Evidence for allelopathy as a mechanism of indigenous plant replacement by invasive exotic shrub. Plant and Soil, 316: 125-137.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Ireson, J.E., Davies, J.T., Chatterton, W.S. & Holloway, R.J. (2002) Attempts to Establish Biological Control Agents for Boneseed in Tasmania. In Papers and Proceedings of the 13th Australian Weeds Conference (eds. H. Spafford Jacob, J. Dodd & J. H. Moore). Plant Protection Society of WA, Perth.
  • Navie, S. & Adkins, S. (2008) Environmental Weeds of Australia, An interactive identification and information resource for over 1000 invasive plants. Centre for Biological Information Technology, The University of Queensland.
  • Parsons, W.T. & Cuthbertson, E.G. (2001) Noxious weeds of Australia. 2nd Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
  • Richardson, R.G. & Richardson, F.J. (eds.) (2008) National Bitou Bush and Boneseed Forum Proceedings. Plant Protection Quarterly, 23 (1).
  • Scott, J.K. (1996) Population ecology of Chrysanthemoides monilifera in South Africa: implications for its control in Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33: 1496-1508.
  • Scurr, G., Kirkpatrick, J.B., Daniels, G.D. & Mcquillan, P.B. (2008) Biotic resistance to Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera in Tasmania. Austral Ecology, 33 (8): 941-950.
  • Thomas, J., Hofmeyer, D. & Benwell, A.S. (2006) Bitou Bush control (after fire) in Bundjalung National Park on the New South Wales North Coast. Ecological Management & Restoration, 7 (2): 79-92.
  • Weiss, P. W., Adair, R. J., Edwards, P. B., Winkler, & Downe, P.O. (2008) Review. Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (L.) T.Norl. and subsp. rotundata (DC.) T.Norl. P.W. Plant Protection Quaterly, 23 (1): 49 - 61.
  • Weiss, P.W. & Noble, I.R (1984) Status of coastal dune communities invaded by Chrysanthemoides monilifera. Australian Journal of Ecology, 9: 93-98.

Project information and acknowledgements