Shrub, 0.8-3 m high. Fl. yellow, Jun to Oct. Swampy loam, lateritic sandy clay. Coastal areas, roadsides, waste areas.
Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Jarrah Forest.
IBRA Subregions: Southern Jarrah Forest.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany.
Alternative Names. Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera.
General Biology. Growth form. Shrub. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Birds, foxes, water, soil, machinery, garden refuse. Time to first flowering. 1-3 years. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Does not resprout or produce root suckers. Seedbank persistence. Medium/long, 1-20 years. Fire response. Hot fire kills mature plants. Cooler fires results in some resprouting. Fire can destroy seed in surface soil but releases dormancy in seed buried deeper in the soil profile.
Notes. A number of biological control agents have been released in Australia. There are two subspecies, monilifera (boneseed) and rotunda (bitou bush). Subspecies rotunda has not been found in Western Australia. Germination is promoted by soil disturbance and fire. Forms a very large soil seed bank, up to 5000 seeds per square metre. Grazing by wallabies has limited spread in Tasmania. Alters nutrient cycling and may disrupt ecosystem resilience. Has allelopathic properties.
Additional information. Origin. South Africa. History of use/introduction. Garden escape, dune stabilisation. Similar exotic species. Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotunda.
Suggested method of management and control. Hand pull or dig out small plants (to 1m), ensuring removal of all root material. Cut and paint or stem inject 100% glyphosate or foliar spray with 1% glyphosate. Monitor site for recruitment from seedbank. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
|Flowering||Y||O||O||O||O||O||O||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Fls all yr in ideal conditions|
|Active Growth||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Grows slowly in winter|
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
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Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/