Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist Flaxleaf Fleabane
Bull.Torrey Bot.Club 70:632 (1943)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 30 April 1997

Erect annual, herb, 0.15-1.5 m high. Fl. white, Jan to Dec. Variety of soils. Weed of cultivation, waste places & roadsides.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: Eremaean Province, Northern Province, South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Carnarvon, Central Kimberley, Coolgardie, Dampierland, Esperance Plains, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Murchison, Nullarbor, Pilbara, Swan Coastal Plain, Victoria Bonaparte, Warren, Yalgoo.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Avon Wheatbelt P2, Cape Range, Central band, Nullarbor Plain, Eastern Goldfield, Eastern Mallee, Eastern Murchison, Edel, Fitzgerald, Fortescue, Geraldton Hills, Hamersley, Mount Eliza, Northern band, Carlisle, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Pindanland, Recherche, Roebourne, Southern Jarrah Forest, Victoria Bonaparte P1, Warren, Western Mallee, Wooramel.

IMCRA Regions: Abrolhos Islands, Central West Coast, Leeuwin-Naturaliste, WA South Coast.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Armadale, Ashburton, Bayswater, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Broome, Canning, Carnarvon, Cockburn, Cocos Islands, Collie, Coolgardie, Dandaragan, Dardanup, Derby-West Kimberley, East Pilbara, Esperance, Gingin, Gosnells, Greater Geraldton, Irwin, Joondalup, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Kulin, Lake Grace, Manjimup, Menzies, Merredin, Narembeen, Narrogin, Northampton, Perth, Port Hedland, Ravensthorpe, Rockingham, Serpentine-Jarrahdale, Shark Bay, South Perth, Swan, Trayning, Wyalkatchem, Wyndham-East Kimberley.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

Alternative Names. Argentine Fleabane, Wavy-leaf Fleabane.

General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Wind, water run-off. Seedbank persistence. At least 3 years. Fire response. Likely resprouts.

Notes. Does not compete well under high plant density or cover and requires disturbance to establish and persist. Light stimulates germination. Soil type and burial depth has significant effects on seed persistence and emergence. Predominantly emerges from the soil surface or burial depths of 0.5 cm. Has small lightweight seed that allows it to readily be dipersed long distances. Some biotypes have herbicide-resistance in parts of the world, however no glyphosate-resistant Conyza populations are recorded in the southeast of Western Australia.

Additional information. Origin. Neotropics. Similar exotic species. Conyza sumatrensis, C. parva, C. canadensis.

Suggested method of management and control. Generally more difficult to control than other species of Fleabane. Hand remove small and/or isolated infestations prior to seed set. Resprouts from basal buds after top removal. Timing of application is key to the efficacy of any herbicide treatment. Most susceptible to glyphosate at the rosette stage and least susceptible at flowering. Apply glyphosate when plants are small (at rosette stage <10cm across) 25 ml/ 10L after stem elongation and before flowering and actively growing. Otherwise 50% glyphosate can be used to wipe the stems of plants. At later stages, it is difficult to control with any single herbicide treatment. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Germination       O Y Y Y O O O O    
Active Growth         O Y Y Y Y Y Y    
Flowering Y Y Y Y Y O O O Y Y Y Y  
Fruiting                   Y Y Y  
Herbicide Treatment           Y Y Y Y        
Manual Removal O O O O O Y Y Y Y O O O  

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Ferreira, E.A., Aspiazú, I., Silva, A.A., Concenço, G., Silva, A.F., Oliveira, J.A. & Vargas, L. (2008) Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) biotypes. Planta Daninha, 26 (3).
  • Gonzlez-Torralva, F.,Cruz-Hipolito, H., Bastida, F., Mlleder, N., Smeda, R.J. & De Prado, R. (2010) Differential susceptibility to glyphosate among the Conyza weed species in Spain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58 (7): 4361-4366.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Karlsson, l.M. & Milberg, P. (2007) Comparing after-ripening response and germination requirements of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis (Asteraceae) through logistic functions. Weed Research, 47: 433-441.
  • Lazaroto, C.A., Fleck, N.G. & Vidal, R.A. (2008) Biology and ecophysiology of hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) and horseweed (Conyza canademis). Ciencia Rural, 38 (3): 852-860.
  • Moore, C.B. & Moore, J.H. (2002) Herbiguide, the pesticide expert on a disk. Herbiguide, PO Box 44 Albany, Western Australia, 6330.
  • Owen, M.J. (2009) A survey in the southern grain belt of Western Australia did not find Conyza spp. resistant to glyphosate. Weed Technology, 23 (3): 492-494.
  • Prieur-Richard, A., Lavorel, S., Dos Santos, A. & Grigulis, K. (2002) Mechanisms of resistance of Mediterranean annual communities to invasion by Conyza bonariensis: effects of native functional composition. Oikos, 99: 338-346.
  • Swarbrick, J.T. & Skarratt, D.B. (1994) The bushweed 2 database of environmental weeds in Australia. The University of Queensland, Gatton College.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.
  • Weaver, S.E. (2001) The biology of Canadian Weeds. 115. Conyza canadinensis. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 81 (4): 867-873.
  • Werth, J., Walker, S., Boucher, L. & Robinson, G. (2010) Applying the double knock technique to control Conyza bonariensis. Weed Biology and Management, 10 (1): 1-8.
  • Wu, H. (2007) The biology of Australian weeds 49. Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist. Plant Protection Quarterly, 22 (4): 122-131.
  • Wu, H., Walker, S. & Robinson, G. (2008) Chemical control of Flaxleaf Fleabane (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist) in winter fallows. Plant Protection Quarterly, 23 (4): 162-165.
  • Wu, H., Walker, S., Rollin, M.J., Tan, D.K.Y., Robinson, G. & Werth, J. (2007) Germination, persistence, and emergence of flaxleaf fleabane (Conyza bonariensis [L.] Cronquist). Weed Biology and Management, 7 (3): 192 - 199.

Project information and acknowledgements