Tree or (conifer), 2-40 m high, monoecious; leaves in pairs, 15-30 cm long; cones with numerous scales; seeds winged. Fl. Sep to Oct. Sand, grey sandy clay, loam. Gentle slopes, edge of tracks, disturbed land.
Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.
IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain.
IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P2, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest.
IMCRA Regions: WA South Coast.
Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Armadale, Augusta-Margaret River, Busselton, Cuballing, Esperance, Gingin, Harvey, Manjimup, Murray, Serpentine-Jarrahdale, Waroona, Woodanilling.
General Biology. Growth form. Tree. Reproduction. Seed. Dispersal. Wind, birds. Time to first flowering. 7 years. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Does not resprout or produce root suckers. Woody structure. Non porous. Seedbank persistence. Short, days-1 year. Fire response. Hot fire will kill mature trees, cooler fire will only kill younger trees. Following fire seed is released from cones and mass germination occurs in the post fire environment.
Additional information. Origin. Mediterranean Region, north-western Africa. History of use/introduction. Commercial plantations.
Suggested method of management and control. Hand pull or dig out seedlings ensuring removal of main root. Fell mature plants below any branches. Monitor site for seedling recruitment. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.