Hypochaeris radicata L. Flat Weed
Sp.Pl. 2:811 (1753)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Amanda Spooner, Thursday 15 May 1997

Rosetted annual, herb, 0.08-0.5 m high, leaves rough, bristly; flower heads up to 3 cm across. Fl. yellow, Jan to Dec (mainly in Spring). Common weed of lawns, horticultural areas, roadsides & bushland.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P2, Fitzgerald, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Recherche, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren, Western Mallee.

IMCRA Regions: Central West Coast, Leeuwin-Naturaliste, WA South Coast.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Armadale, Augusta-Margaret River, Boddington, Boyup Brook, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Bunbury, Busselton, Canning, Cockburn, Cottesloe, Esperance, Gnowangerup, Gosnells, Harvey, Kalamunda, Manjimup, Melville, Mosman Park, Mundaring, Murray, Nannup, Narrogin, Plantagenet, Ravensthorpe, Rockingham, Serpentine-Jarrahdale, South Perth, Stirling, Swan, Wanneroo, Waroona, York.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Thursday 21 December 2017

Alternative Names. Cat's-ear, Spotted Cat's-ear.

General Biology. Growth form. Herb. Life form. Annual. Reproduction. Seed, occasionally vegetatively from perenating buds. Dispersal. Wind. Toxicity. Toxic to horses. Seedbank persistence. Short, days-1 year. Fire response. Resprouts from rootstock after fire.

Notes. May also be biennial or perennial. Common in disturbed areas and can also be found invading natural vegetation in riparian zones, seasonal freshwater wetlands, alpine areas and coastlines. Develops deep roots which are consumed by wild pigs, that are able to dig up large areas in search of the roots. Seedling recruitment is generally higher in Hypochaeris glabra than the similar, often co-occurring species H. radicata. H. radicata generally produces more fruits per plant than H. glabra, but a lower proportion of its flowers set fruit.

Additional information. Origin. Northern Africa, temperate Asia, western Asia, Europe. Similar exotic species. Hypochaeris glabra.

Suggested method of management and control. Wiping rosettes with 30% glyphosate provides effective control. For dense infestations apply Lontrel® 10 ml/10 L + wetting agent. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Comments
Germination       Y Y O              
Active Growth           Y Y Y Y Y Y    
Flowering Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  
Fruiting O O O O O O O O O Y Y Y  
Herbicide Treatment           Y Y Y Y        

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Araujo, J.A.S., Curcio, B., Alda, J., Medeiros, R.M.T. & Riet-Correa, F. (2008) Stringhault in Brazilian horses casued by Hypochaeris radicata. Toxicon, 52: 190-193.
  • Botanic Gardens Trust (Undated) *Hypochaeris radicata. Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW, Sydney. URL: http://www.rbsgsyd.nsw.gov.au - Accessed July 2010.
  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Cameron, L. & Richardson, R.G. (1998) Hypochaeris radicata. In The Biology of Australian Weeds Vol. 2 (eds. F.D. Panetta, R.H. Groves, & R.C.H. Shepherd). R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Melbourne.
  • de Kroon, H., Plaisier, A. & van Groenendael, J. (1987) Density dependent simulation of the population dynamics of a perennial grassland species, Hypochaeris radicata. Oikos, 50: 3-12.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Mix, C., Arens, P.F.P., Rengelink, R., Smulders, M.J.M., van Groenendael, M. & Ouborg, N.J. (2006) Regional gene flow and population structure of the wind dispersed plant species Hypochaeris radicata (Asteracea) in an agricultural landscape. Molecular Ecology, 15: 1749-1758.
  • Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
  • Pickering, C. & Hill, W. (2007) Roadside weeds of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Mountain Research and Development, 27 (4): 359-367.
  • Pico, F.X., Ouborg, N.J. & van Groenendael, J. (2004) Influence of selfing and maternal effects on life-cycle traits and dispersal ability in the herb Hypochaeris radicata (Asteracea). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 146: 163-170.
  • Swarbrick, J.T. & Skarratt, D.B. (1994) The bushweed 2 database of environmental weeds in Australia. The University of Queensland, Gatton College.
  • Weiner, J. (1993) Competition, herbivory and plant size variability: Hypochaeris radicata grazed by snails (Helix aspersa). Functional Ecology, 7 (1): 47-53.

Project information and acknowledgements