Typha orientalis C.Presl Bulrush
Mem.Soc.Ital.Sci.Nat.Mus.Civico Storia Milano Ser.5,6:599 (1851)

Conservation Code: Not threatened
Naturalised Status: Alien to Western Australia
Name Status: Current

Brief Description
Grazyna Paczkowska, Thursday 14 July 1994

Rhizomatous, monoecious, emergent perennial, herb, 2-4.5 m high. Fl. brown, Nov to Dec or Jan. Winter-wet depressions, permanent wetlands, irrigation channels.

Distribution

Beard’s Provinces: South-West Province.

IBRA Regions: Avon Wheatbelt, Jarrah Forest, Mallee, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.

IBRA Subregions: Avon Wheatbelt P1, Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren, Western Mallee.

IMCRA Regions: Leeuwin-Naturaliste.

Local Government Areas (LGAs): Albany, Augusta-Margaret River, Busselton, Canning, Collie, Coorow, Harvey, Lake Grace, Melville, Mundaring, Rockingham, Stirling, Swan, Vincent, Wanneroo.

Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Kate Brown and Karen Bettink, Monday 18 July 2016

Alternative Names. Cumbungi, Cattail, Typha.

General Biology. Growth form. Sedge. Life form. Perennial. Reproduction. Primarily seed, also rhizomes. Dispersal. Wind, water, soil.

Notes. Both Typha orientalis and T. domingensis are native to eastern Australia however only T. domingensis is native to Western Australia. The two species are difficult to separate and intermediates have been found. Flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, however both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are wind-pollinated. Seedlings can flower after 6 months. Plants senesce in late summer after flowering. New shoots that are produced in autumn grow slowly over winter. Highly productive. Maximum above ground growth occurs during months of higher temperatures and long photoperiods, whereas productivity of roots and rhizomes is highest during low temperatures and short photoperiods. Loses more organic matter in sites subject to seasonal wet/dry hydrological cycles compared to permanently inundated sites. There can be marked differences in ecotypes. Management of Typha may impact on waterbird roosting sites and habitat.

Additional information. Origin. Eastern and northern Australia, temperate and tropical Asia, New Zealand. History of use/introduction. Food, medicines, soil stabilisation, biomass, fibres, water treatment. Similar native species. Typha domingensis.

Suggested method of management and control. Eradication is difficult due to prolific seed production and extensive rhizomatous roots. Apply Roundup Biactive® (360 g/L) at 13 ml/L when actively growing through wiping, backpack/handheld spray or high volume spray. The optimum time is between male flowers opening and 6 weeks after female flowers open. This period is usually the end of December through to February. Complete coverage of foliage is necessary. Avoid producing run-off or spray drift. Plants with one third of the stem below water may not absorb enough herbicide to be killed by spraying - either wait till water levels are lower or plants have matured. Cutting shoots 15 cm below the water surface two to three times in a season when actively growing, but before seeds are formed, greatly reduces stands. Repeat treatment annually to ensure against reinfestation. To avoid loss of water quality by anaerobic decomposition of dead plant material in water, consider physical removal of dead biomass or burning 6 weeks after spraying. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.

Management Calendar

Calendar TypeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecComments
Active GrowthYYOOO   OYYY 
Germination         YYY 
FloweringY         YY 
FruitingYY           
Manual RemovalYYOOOOOOOOYY 
Herbicide TreatmentYYO      OOY 

Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.

 

References

  • Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
  • Finlayson, M., Forrester, R.I., Mitchell, D.S. & Chick, A.J. (1985) Identification of native Typha species in Australia. Australian Journal of botany, 33: 101-107.
  • Forestry Tasmania (1999) Weed control in Tasmania's forests: Information sheet 3: Cumbungi/Bullrush (Typha spp Pers.). Land and Water Management Branch, Tasmania DPIF.
  • Homan, H.J., Linz, G.M., Carlson, R.C. & Bleier, W.J. (2003) Spring distribution of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Wildlife Research, 30: 159-166.
  • Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
  • Keighery, G. & McCabe, S. (2015) Status of Typha orientalis in Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist, 30 (1): 30-35.
  • McK Pegman, A.P. & Ogden, J. (2005) Productivity-decomposition dynamics of Typha orientalis at Kaitoke Swamp, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 43 (4): 779.
  • Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
  • Plants for a Future (Undated) Typha orientalis - C.Presl. URL: http://www.pfaf.org/ - Accessed April 2010.
  • Roberts, J. & Ganf, G.G. (1986) Annual production of Typha orientalis Presl. in inland Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 37: 659-68.
  • Ryder, D.S. & Horwitz, P. (1995) Seasonal water regimes and leaf litter processing in a wetland on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 46: 1077-84.
  • Sale, P.J.M. & Orr, P.T. (1987) Growth responses of Typha orientalis Presl. to controlled temperatures and photoperiods. Aquatic Botany, 29: 227-243.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2009) Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx - Accessed October 2009.
  • Zedler, J.B. & Kercher, S. (2004) Causes and consequences of invasive plants in wetlands: Opportunites, opportunists and outcomes. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 23 (5): 431-452.

Project information and acknowledgements